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The Motion Picture CAMERA Magazine 




Published in Hollywood, 
by 

American Society 
of Cinematographers 


June, 1937 





DuPont Film Manufacturing Corporation 

INCORPORATED 

35 WEST 45th ST., NEW YORK CITY smith & ALLER, ltd. 

PLANT . . . PARLIN. N. J 6656 SANTA MONICA BLVD.. HOLLYWOOD. CAL 


( JiHiOiB ) BETTER THINGS for BETTER LIVING through CHEMISTRY 



June, 1937 • American Cinematographer 225 



STARS 

are rising before the motion picture industry. 

TECHNICOLOR 

Motion Picture Corporati on 

HERBERT T. KALMUS, President 


226 American Cinematographeji 


• June, 1937 



ev£MO keeps up 

wIth the cmi wow-u 


s' 


The Bell & Howell Eyemo 35 mm. Camera has 
always been equal to its intended job of doing 
everything outside of the studio — and being a 
good pinch-hitter even in the studio. As re- 
quirements for such a camera-of-all-work have 
changed, Eyemo has been changed to fit them. 
Again this has happened, and now Eyemo offers: 

1 . Hand crank on every model in addition to rugged 
spring motor — permits exposing as much as a com- 
plete loading of film without interruption. Especially 
valuable when electric power is not available for 
optional motor drive. 

2. Such accurate machining of motor mounting that 
motors may be purchased at any time and installed by 


the owner, and one motor can be used with several 
cameras interchangeably. Both regular and synchron- 
ous motors are available. 

3. S. M. P. E. standard sound aperture plates and 
matching drum type variable viewfinders now on all 
Eyemos except the lowest priced model. Sound can 
therefore be added to films made with the Eyemo, 
using standard recording and printing equipment. 

4. Vibrationless high speed type governor inside the 
mechanism compartment. This insures great accuracy 
of speed, faster pickup, and extreme ruggedness. 

With these new features, Eyemo Cameras are 
capable of going anywhere you may need them 
and doing anything you might expect. 

Write today for literature describing all the 
advantages of the Eyemo line. 


MU 4 HOWEJ.l_CUi'’A''» 

CHICAGO: T848 larchmonCAvenue ^4 Oreat Cosrte Street 

new YORK: 11 1*07 


June, 1937 • American Cinematographer 227 


AMERICAN 

CINEMATOGRAPHER 


A Technical and Educational publication 
on motion picture photogrraphy. 

Published monthly by the 
AMERICAN SOCIETY 
OF CINEMATOGRAPHERS. INC. 

1782 N. Orange Drive 
Hollyvi'ood, California 

Telephone GRanlte 2135 

JOHN ARNOLD, President, A.S.C. 

FRED W. JACKMAN, Treasurer. A.S.C. 

Vol. 18 June, 1937 No. 6 

Contents 

A Great Convention 228 

By George Blaisdell 

Television, Lighting, Sound, Color Stand 


Out at Engineers’ Conventon 229 

Advanced Technique of Lighting on 

Technicolor 230 

By C. W. Handley 

Engineers See Pictures Made at 
Universal 231 

Process Engineering 232 

By Fred W. Jackman, A.S.C. 

Technicolor Bringing New Charm to 

Screen 231 

By William Stull, A.S.C. 

Erickson Describes Triple 5 Spot 238 

By Carl R. Erickson 

A.S.C. Members on Parade 240 



ESTABLISHED 1918. Advertising Rates on applica- 
tion. Subscription : U.S. $2.50 a year ; Canada, $3.50 
a year ; Foreign $3.50 a year. Single copies, 25c ; 
back numbers, 30c. Foreign single copies, 35c : back 
numbers, 40c. COPYRIGHT 1937 by American Soci- 
ety of Cinematographers, Inc. 


r -"1 



The' Staff 

EDITOR 
George Blaisdell 

TECHNICAL EDITOR 
Emery Huse, A. S. C. 

ADVISORY 
EDITORIAL BOARD 
Victor Milner, A. S. C. 
James Van Trees, A. S. C. 
Fred W. Jackman, A. S. C. 
F'arciot Edouart, A. S. C. 
Fred Gage, A. S. C. 
Dr. J. S. Watson, A. S. C. 

Dr. L. A. Jones, A. S. C. 
Dr. C. E. K. Mees, A. S. C. 
Dr. W. B. Rayton, A. S. C. 
Dr. Herbert Meyer, A. S. C. 
Dr. V. B. Sease, A. S. C. 

CIRCULATION MANAGER 
L. Graham 

NEW YORK REPRESENTATIVE 
S. R. Cowan, 19 East 47th St., New York 
t;ity. Phone Plaza 3-0483. 

FOREIGN REPRESENTATIVE 
Georges Benoit, 100 Allee Franklin, 
Pavillions-sous-Bois, Seine, France. Tele- 
phone LeRaincy 13-19. 

AUSTRALIAN REPRESENTATIVE 

McGill’s 179 Elizabeth Street. Melbourne 
Australian and New Zealand agents. 

Neither the American Cinematographer nor 
the American Society of Cinematographers 
is responsible for statements made by au- 
thors. This magazine will not be respon- 
sible for unsolicited manuscripts. 


228 American Cinematographer • June, 1937 


A GREAT CONVENTION 


By George Blaisdell 


I T WAS A great convention, that 
gathering of the Engineers. Old- 
timers there are who are prepared to 
assert that of the forty conventions 
that have been held this one topped 
the lot. And while not inclined to 
blow any horn for any town — not even 
for New York, and we lived there a 
lot of years — if the convention proved 
to be a success it was not in spite of 
it being held in Hollywood. The ones 
in the know will tell you it was be- 
cause of it. 

T 

ROSTRUM PRESENCE 

F or unusually effective de- 
livery of a technical paper the or- 
chids are undoubtedly due John For- 
est of the home office of Agfa, who on 
Tuesday morning enlightened the del- 
egates to the Engineers’ convention 
on “The New Agfacolor Process.” To 
be sure, this writer was present at 
comparativ’ely few of the sessions, but 
he has been in attendance at quite a 
number of others since the organiza- 
tion of the society, and it is his con- 
viction this young man has something 
out of the ordinary in the way of 
rostrum presence. 

Poise would seem to be Forest’s 
outstanding characteristic, and this is 
fortified by the earnestness, the mod- 
esty without a trace of shjmess, the 
clarity of expression, and the uncon- 
scious authority of the scholar who 
knows his subject. 

With fifty years of usefulness easily 
ahead of him it is pleasant to con- 
template what this one man will bring 
to a great industry in the course of a 
lifetime. And it must not be forgot- 
ten that all over the world working 
with him are thousands of others. 

T 

FILE YOUR APPLICATION NOW 

A REPORT not at this writing of- 
ficially confirmed says that Sam 
Goldwyn and Alexander Korda have 
purchased from IMary Pickford, 
Charles Chaplin and Douglas Fair- 
banks control of United Artists. The 
trio named constitute three-fourths of 
the original organization. The sum 
reported to be paid the three is in 
excess of two million apiece. 

At the time of the forming of the 
company — something like a score of 
years ago — a well-known distributor 
who from the beginning had been a 



S. K. WOLF 

President, Society Motion Picture Engineers 


He was one of the many who believed 
then even though he may not now 
that an actor as a business man not 
only was not so hot but actually was 
something exceedingly cold. 

And so this former songslide mer- 
chant — and in other days that re- 
mark belittled nobody — later exchange 
man, distributor and now producer 
was moved to remark when speaking 
of the organizers: 

“The inmates have taken over the 
asylum.” 

The line for those who wish to en- 
ter some similar asylum, draw down 
fat dividends across a couple of dec- 
ades and then sell out for better than 
two million apiece, forms on the right. 
And don’t crowd. 

T 

BOUQUET FOR THE SERGEANT 

A t the may meeting of the Los 
Angeles 8mm Club Member C. G. 
Cornell in the course of a routine re- 
port praised Bill Stull’s interview in 
the April and May issues of this 
magazine with Sergeant Robert Teo- 
rey. He declared the Sergeant’s 
cleverness in devising expedients for 
accomplishing most useful ends in 
the way of making home movies was 
worthy of careful study. President 
F. R. Loscher at the end of the com- 
teeman’s report agreed with the pre- 
vious speaker, saying he hoped every 
member would be able to read the 
articles. 


figure in the industry — going back 
as far as the song slides, and who to- 
day is an associate producer — was 
moved to make a remark that was 
widely quoted at the time. He was 
famous for that sort of wisecracks, 
and not always were they susceptible 
of reprinting in a family newspaper. 


EPITAPH 

If I should die before again we meet 
Hail and Farewell I send. 

If pain I’ve caused by thoughtless 
words unsweet 
Contrite my head I bend. 

If vagrant flash of me shall cross your 
mind 

I crave your charity: 

See me in hours when joy was uncon- 
fined . . . 

Not in asperity! 


T 

A SHOM TO REMEMBER 

Y OU ARE WARNED in advance so 
you may discount any seeming 
enthusiasm that this reporter ever 
since the days of Kinemacolor has been 
a nut on color. But what he has on his 
mind is how Technicolor came into its 
own on the first evening of the En- 
gineers’ Convention. For three hours 
in the Blossom Room of the Holly- 
wood Roosevelt an audience composed 
of motion picture experts, the men be- 
hind the screen, sat — well, yes, you 
may be permitted to say when but a 
quarter of an hour away from under 
it — enthralled at a program of riches. 

Probably never in the comparatively 
brief history of the motion picture in- 
dustry had there been such a program 
offered to a motion picture audience — 
meaning to a body that is hard-boiled 
Continued on Papre 264 




June, 1937 • American Cinematographer 229 


Officers of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers. Standing, left to right. Sylvan Harris, editor journal of the society; Gordon A. Cham- 
bers, secretary-treasurer Pacific Coast section; John A. Aalberg, manager P. C. S. ; Gerald F. Rackett, executive vice president; Hollis W. 
Moyse, P. C. S. manager; Kenneth F. Morgan, chairman P. C. S. ; Glenn E. Matthews, chairman papers committee. Seated, H. G. Tasker, 
past president; J. Frank Jr., secretary; H. Griffin, governor; S. K. W olf, president; W. C. Kunzmann, convention vice president; M. C. Bastel, 

governor. 



TELEVISION, UGHTING, SOUND, COLOR 
STAND OUT AT ENGINEER CONVENTION 


T elevision, lighting, and stan- 
dardization of the industry’s 
“push-pull” sound systems high- 
lighted the 1937 Spring Convention 
of the Society of Motion Picture En- 
gineers held in Hollywood, May 24 to 
28. Directors of production and 
special effects photography outlined 
their achievements and problems, and 
the research experts visiting from 
Eastern laboratories were treated to 
remarkable demonstrations of the 
actual technical workings of produc- 
tion in the most successful gathering 
in the society’s history. 

Perhaps the first genuinely authori- 
tative discussion of television ever 
presented in this country was given 
by Ralph R. Beal, research supervisor 


for the Radio Corporation of America. 
Beal described RCA’s present experi- 
mental television installation in Radio 
City, from the “Iconscope” cameras in 
the studio to the “Kinescope” receiv- 
ers in the home. He stated that at 
present television broadcasts are 
faced with the difficulty that the 
ultra-short waves used have a range 
of approximately 35 miles. 

Fred W. Jackman, A.S.C., reviewed 
special effects photography from its 
inception, culminating with a discus- 
sion of problems of present-day pro- 
jection background process cinema- 
tography. 

Gaetano Gaudio, A.S.C., left the set 
where he was directing the photog- 
raphy of an important production to 


attend the session and describe the 
lighting technique which won him 
the Academy award. 

O. O. Ceccarini pi’esented an ex- 
haustive paper discussing the various 
color-print processes, accompanied by 
an exhibit of color prints by the 
nation’s leading color specialists. The 
new Agfacolor process was dis- 
cussed by John Forrest, and experts 
from Dufaycolor, Inc., discussed prob- 
lems of lighting color, illustrating 
with motion pictui’e origpnals and 
prints filmed by the Dufay process. 
Technicolor lighting was discussed by 
C. W. Handley of the National Car- 
bon Company. 

Outstanding advances in photo- 
graphic materials were shown in the 



230 American Cinematographer • 


June, 1937 



Raloh R Beal, research supervisor of Radio Corporation of America, arriving in Hollywood 
over American Airlines, being greeted by M. C. Batsel, manager of Photophone engineering for 
RCA Mr. Beal addressed the S,M,P.E, Friday evening. May 28. on “RCA Developments in 
Television,” winding up the five-day convention. 


Eastman Kodak Company’s two new 
emulsions for duplicating work, dis- 
cussed by Emery Huse, A.S.C., and 
in Agfa’s new Type B Infra-red nega- 
tive, discussed by Wilson Leahy, 
A.S.C., and Grant Hough. 

These papers were Illustrated by 
scenes contributed by several major 
studios, in several cases eliciting 
spontaneous applause for their pho- 
tographic beauty. Leahy is especially 
to be commended for announcing the 
name of the A.S.C. member who pho- 
tographed each infra-red scene shown. 

Whole-hearted cooperation from 
studio executives and personnel was 
more evident than at any previous 
S.M.P.E. conclave. Monday evening’s 
treat in Technicolor is referred to edi- 
torially. The Tuesday evening session 
at the Universal studio was outstand- 
ing in its cooperation, while the 
Thursday evening session, hosted 
jointly by the Academy and Metro- 
Goldwyn-Mayer, presented interest- 
ing demonstrations of modern sound 
achievements. 

Shapiro Talks of 16mm Sound 

The educational, semi-professional 
and substandard fields were well rep- 
resented. An outstanding paper on the 
making of “soft X-ray” motion pic- 
tures of small biological specimens 
was an early feature, while educa- 
tional film progress and problems 
were reviewed by S. K. Wolf. 

The present aspects of 16mm 
sound were discussed by A. Shapiro 
of the Ampro Corporation, and the 
new S.M.P.E., test-film for testing 
16mm sound systems was presented 
by M. C. Batsel of RCA, using the 


A PREVIOUS paper described the 
studio illuminating equipment 
used for Technicolor productions 
in 1935. Since then developments in 
arc lamps and changes in the Techni- 
color process have occurred which 
make possible a considerable advance 
in Technicolor lighting, which have 
not only resulted in much better 
lighting, but in the accomplishment of 
this result with a considerably small- 
er number of lamps. 

The last report of the studio light- 


new sound Kodascope later described 
by Dr. O. Sandvik of the Kodak Lab- 
oratories. The American Cinema- 
tographer’s special effects prize-win- 
ning amateur film, “Nite Life,” was 
screened at this session. 

A remarkable array of newly de- 
veloped equipment and methods for 
sound recording and analysis rere- 

T 


ing committee (presented at the Fall, 
1936, convention of the society) gives 
the average light intensity used on 
black and white sets as 250 to 400 
foot-candles, and on Technicolor sets 
as 800 to 1,000 foot-candles. 

During the past year Technicolor 
has been able to reduce its illumina- 
tion to approximately the same levels 
as now used for a great deal of black 
and white work. These changes have 
been made possible by the use of more 
efficient lighting equipment, changes 


cording, film editing, developing, pro- 
jection, and sensitometric and densi- 
tometric methods also were discussed 
and demonstrated by various manu- 
facturers. Included among these con- 
tributors may be mentioned several 
from studios and equipment firms in 
London, Berlin and other foreign 
centers. 


in the Technicolor photographic tech- 
nique and advances in laboratory proc- 
essing. 

New Arc Lamps 

When the first Technicolor three- 
color picture was made the MR Type 
39 twin-arc broadside and the MR 
Type 27 scoop were the only modem 
arc lamps available. These were 
placed around and above the set to 
establish an even overall illumination 
tion. 

The spotlamps and sun arcs used 
for creating areas of higher intensity 
were lamps which had been used for 
many years on black and white. They 
did not give an even field, nor were 
they satisfactorily quiet or suitable 
as to color (|uality. Therefore the 
broadside and scoop were used where- 
ever possible. As a result, many more 
lamps were used on a set than would 
have been necessary if modern high 
intensity equipment had been avail- 
able. 

The MR Type 90 “H.I. Arc” is now 


ADVANCED TECHNIQUE OF 

LIGHTING ON TECHNICOLOR 

Abridged from a Paper Presented at the Spring 
Convention of the Society of Motion Picture 
Engineers, Held in Hollywood, May 27, 1937 

By C. W. HANDLEY 

Western Representative National Carbon Company 




June, 1937 


• American Cinematographer 231 



Completing arrangements for annual spring convention of Society of Motion Picture Engineers 
are William C. Kunzman, National Carbon sales manager, convention vice president, and 
Glenn E. Matthews, Eastman Kodak, technical editor and chairman papers committee. 


used in place of the older 80 ampere 
rotary spot, the MR Type 150 “Ul- 
tra H,I. Arc” in place of the 24" sun 
spot, and a new 65 ampere spotlight 
(MR Type 65) developed. The 36- 
inch sun arc is still used where a 
deep penetration of light is desired 
on particularly long throws or where 
a particularly sharp shadow is neces- 
sary. 

The MR Type 90 and the older 80 
ampere rotary are of approximately 
the same size and weight, but the 
Type 90 at a beam spread of 40 de- 
grees delivers over three times the 
light of the 80 ampere rotary, and 


O NE of the highlights of the Con- 
vention of the Society of Motion 
Picture Engineers was the Tuesday 
evening session held at the Universal 
Studio for which Past President Ho- 
mer Tasker had enlisted the aid of vir- 
tually every studio department in an 
unusually complete demonstration of 
“How Motion Pictures Are Made.” 
The four hundred members and 
guests of the Convention assembled 
on the studio’s scoring stage which 
was actually in use at the time record- 
ing a pre-scored sound track for use 
on the morrow’s production. This 


at a beam spread of 16 degrees twelve 
times. 

Improvements in the laboratory 
processing of the film, details of which 
are outside the scope of this paper, 
have made it possible to reduce the 
light intensity on sets by as much 
as 40 per cent and to change the il- 
luminating technique from that of a 
more or less flat lighting with a uni- 
form overall light intensity to an ad- 
vanced color technique with widely 
varying levels. 

Because the lighting of a motion 
picture set is often a compromise 
between the cinematographer’s desire 

T 


note of legitimacy characterized the 
entire session. 

Following Studio Manager Val 
Paul’s official welcome. Associate Pro- 
ducer Robert Presnell outlined the 
problems of translating a story into 
celluloid entertainment. He empha- 
sized the difficulties of adapting 
stories to fit a program production 
budget, choosing writers, director, di- 
rector of photography and a cast, and 
yet remaining within the allotted ex- 
penditure. 

Next Bernard Brown, chief music 
and dubbing mixer, described how song 


for a given effect and the limitations 
of the equipment and process it is 
difficult to attempt to state the num- 
ber of lamps required for any given 
area. The table shows an estimate 
given by Ray Rennahan, chief cine- 
matographer, of the number and types 
of units he used to photograph the 
huge ballroom set of “Becky Sharp,” 
the first three-color Technicolor fea- 
ture. 

In comparison is Rennahan’s esti- 
mate of the lamp equipment which 
would be required for the same set 
under present conditions of lighting. 
The reduction from the original re- 
quirements is apparent. 



& 

U 

ce 







v.'O 


CC a; 

^ o 


« X 



c E 

9 g 


O 0 
0 



1= 




6 £ 

Type 

Qty. 

Qty. 


1935 

1937 

36" Sun Arcs 

19 

4 

*24" Sun Arcs 

47 

none 

tlOO Amp. Rotaries 

4 

none 

|80 Amp. Rotaries 

87 

none 

35 Amp. Spots 

1 

1 

Broadsides MR Type 29 

71 

35 

Scoops MR Type 27 

78 

40 

MR Junior Solarspots 

12 

12 

36" Sun Spots 

9 

5 

24" Sun Spots 

5 

none 

18" Sun Spots 

5 

none 

Rifles 

5 

none 

Domes 

1 

none 

Strips 

40 

none 

TOTAL LAMPS 

384 

167 

Amps. 

Amps. 

Generator Load 



at 115 Volts 20,000 


12,895 

Quantity new Type. 




"=30 MR Tvpe 159S 
t40 MR Type 90S 


sequences are made by recording first 
the accompaniment, then the voice 
while the singer listens to the re- 
corded accompaniment through an 
ear-phone, and finally photographing 
the picture to a synchronized play- 
back of the music. To illustrate this 
Deanna Durbin actually recorded a 
song from “100 Men and a Girl,” sing- 
ing to an accompaniment she alone 
heard. 

Following this, members of the 
studio’s art department gave a dem- 
onstration of the making of set 
sketches and plans. 

Adjourning to a production stage, 
Joseph Pasternak, associate producer 
of “100 Men and a Girl,” substitut- 
ing for Director Henry Koster, dis- 
cussed the director’s duties, after 
Continued on Pape 2-39 


Engineers See Picture Made 
Under Hand of Emcee Tasker 



232 American Cinematographer • June, 1937 


PROCESS ENGINEERING 

Special Effects Cinematography 
From an Engineering Viewpoint 

Abridged from a Paper Presented at the Spring 
Convention of the Society of Motion Picture 
Engineers, in Hollywood, May 24th, 1937 

By FRED W. JACKMAN, A.S.C. 


A MICROSCOPICALLY exact 
registration is the heart of mod- 
ern projection process back- 
ground cinematography, in which a 
print of any desired background is 
projected on a large translucent screen 
behind the foreground set and action, 
and rephotographed by a foreground 
camera electrically interlocked with 
the projector. 

It is obvious that any trace of an 
unsteady picture at any point in this 
process will destroy the usefulness of 
the composite scene. If the background 
plate is photographed in a camera 
which is not microscopically steady 
the background of the composite scene 
will not be steady with relation to the 
foreground. If the background is 
printed in a printer which does not 
register perfectly the same will 
result. If the projector does not 
maintain the same mathemati- 
cally exact register again there 
will be unsteadiness. 

The equally obvious solution is 
to use pilot pin registration 
throughout — from background 
camera through printer, project- 
or and composite taking camera. 

This is indeed the answer, but 
only part of it. Modern projected 
background work demands such 
tremendously accurate registra- 
tion that the pilot pins must 
register throug’h the same pair 
of perforations throughout every 
operation. 

Dual Arrangement 

Our industry is based on the 
use of two types of camera — the 
Bell and Howell and the 
Mitchell. Both are equipped 
with excellent pilot pin regis- 
tration systems. But one reg- 
isters through two perforations 
above the frame, while the other 
registers two perforations be- 
low the frame. 

Clearly if we photograph our 
background with a camera em- 
ploying one type of registration 
and nrint or project it using the 


other type we cannot have microscopi- 
cally perfect registration in our pro- 
jected picture. The error, viewed from 
a production photographic viewpoint, 
might be negligible, but it is ample 
to spoil the process shot. 

For much the same reason certain 
designers of theatrical projectors who 
have offered projectors for process 
service equipped with a side tension 
register only have gravely underesti- 
mated the problem. Such a projector 
will undoubtedly be abnormally steady 
for theatrical use, but it is worthless 
for process purposes. 

I have found the commercial an- 
swer to this registration problem in 
the ecjuipment designed and built for 
me by William Matz of Hollywood. It 
uses Bell and Howell type pilot pin 



Fred W. Jackman, A.S.C. 


registration throughout. But each 
unit — printer, projector, etc. — is 
equipped with two interchangeable 
movements, one for use with back- 
ground plates photographed with a 
Bell and Howell camera, the other for 
use with Mitchell-photographed back- 
grounds. Each has its registering pins 
working through the same pair of per- 
forations in printing and projecting 
that were used in photographing the 
original background negative. 

Processing Important 

Equally important is the laboratory 
processing of both the original back- 
ground neg’ative and the projection 
prints made from it. Any pronounced 
stretching or shrinkage of the film — 
negative or print — will play havoc 
with register. Absolute control of 
gamma is necessary. Fineness of 
grain is most desirable. And for the 
best results it is desirable that there 
be no directional markings on the 
film. 

I have had excellent results in my 
own plant from the Roto tank develop- 
ing system engineered for me by Roy 
Davidge. This places the film “on a 
large metal reel, sandwiched between 
spirals of a celluloid apron similar 
to those used in developing miniature 
camera film. The reel is laid horizon- 
tally in the tank and oscillated be- 
tween 75 and 85 times per minute. 

This gives a non-directional turbu- 
lence which produces no measurable 
directional markings and gives a 
cleaner cut negative with great- 
ly improved shadow detail. 

Incidentally, this method re- 
duces the developing time about 
45 per cent and enables us to 
dilute the developer consider- 
ably. There is no strain on the 
film, so expansion and shrinkage 
are minimized. 

The secret of success in mod- 
ern special effects engineering is 
a combination of knowledge and 
organization. A properly con- 
ducted special effects unit, 
whether a department in a ma- 
jor studio or an independent 
special effects contractor, must 
inevitably be an organization of 
many specialists. 

Specialists Necessary 

These men must be specialists 
in much more than photography 
alone. Practically every phase 
of studio activity must be repre- 
sented. In addition to the stage 
crew of thoroughly competent 
operative and assistant camera- 
men, electricians, carpenters and 
grips — all experienced not only 
in production but in special ef- 
fects technique — presided over 

Continued on Pasre 244 


I 


THE ANSWER 


EASTMAN’S cooperation with the in- 
dustry has helped to solve many a prob- 
lem of motion picture technique. Now it 
supplies a complete answer to the im- 
portant duplicating problem. Eastman 
Fine-Grain Duplicating Positive and Neg- 
ative Films are capable of producing du- 
plicates actually indistinguishable from 
originals. Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, 
N. Y. (J. E. Bruiatour, Inc., Distributors, 
Fort Lee, Chicago, Hollywood.) 


EASTMAN Fine-Grain 


DUPEICATING FILMS 


234 American Cinematographer • June, 1937 


TECHNICOLOR BRINGING 
NEW CHARM TO SCREEN 

What Company Has Achieved Through Capacity 
for Taking Infinite Pains in Details Minor as 
Well as Major Demonstrated in Preliminary 
Showing of '"Walter Wanger's Vogues of 1938'" 

By WILLIAM STULL, A.S.C. 


I T WAS RECENTLY the writer’s 
privilege to view the first cut of 
uhe Technicolor production, “Wal- 
ter Wanger’s Vogues of 1938.” In- 
tel studio gossip had more than in- 
tin>ated that this picture would es- 
tablish a new high for the perfection 
of color. But since few if any of the 
gossipers were cinematographers I 
had taken these advance praises with 
the proverbial grain of salt. 

Too frequently in the past have non- 
technical persons gushed about color 
“achievements,” which when viewed 
with the scientific detachment of the 
cinematographer turned out to be no 
achievement at all. Despite active 
niembership in Hollywood’s clan of 
color enthusiasts I had to be shown 
conclusively that this latest Techni- 
color production was the achievement 
claimed. 


It is. 

Eleven reels of outstandingly fine 
color proved it. Viewed either from 
the technical or the artistic viewpoint, 
they were eleven reels of the finest 
color I have ever seen produced by 
any subtractive process. The flesh 
tones were, for almost the first time, 
natural. The reproduction of the 
tones and textures of fabrics, cos- 
tumes, walls, and the like virtually 
were perfect. Definition and color 
balance were not only excellent but 
remarkably consistent. And the pic- 
ture passed with flying colors the ul- 
timate technical test of any color 
process: the whites were genuinely 
clean white and the blacks honest 
blacks. 

The most outstanding surprise, 
however, was the fact that what I 
saw was eleven reels of daily prints, 


delivered almost as quickly as though 
they had been black-and-white rather 
than color. During the past year I 
have seen preview prints and release 
prints (both black-and-white and col- 
or) of poorer quality and consistency 
than these “rushes.” 

What Process Involves 

My natural inquiry as to what pro- 
portion of the footage I saw repre- 
sented reprints was answered by the 
statement that, out of more than 
70,000 feet of color rushes delivered 
to the producer, less than 709 feet of 
reprint had been required. My in- 
formant added that the relatively few 
scenes I had commented on as seem- 
ing slightly below the standard set 
by the body of the picture could be 
and inevitably would be corrected in 
the more careful balancing of release 
print making. 

To anyone w'ho has made even a 
slight study of the technicalities of 
motion picture color this achievement 
seems wellnigh incredible, for Tech- 
nicolor’s three-color process is inher- 
ently a highly complicated aifair. At 
the risk of boring those already fa- 
miliar with the process, it may be well 
to outline briefly what is involved. 

Three-color Technicolor is photo- 
graphed w’ith a special camera which 
exposes three negatives simultaneous- 
ly, through a single lens. Immediate- 
ly behind this lens is a beam splitter 
made by joining two prisms of opti- 
cal glass, the joined faces being sil- 
ver-sputtered to produce a partially 
reflecting mirror. This beam splitter 
reflects part of the light to an aper- 
ture at the left of the lens, and al- 
lows the remainder to pass through 
to a normally located aperture. 

Three specially hypersensitized 
films pass through these two aper- 
tures. In the rear aperture, a single 
Suoer-X Panchromatic film is exposed 
behind a green filter. In the left 
anerture a standard bipack is exposed 
behind a magenta filter. This filter 



transmits both red and blue light, but 
excludes green; the front film of the 
bipack, being an orthochromatic emul- 
sion, records only the blue compon- 
ents. It carries a red-orange dye 
which absorbs the blue rays, leaving 
only the red to affect the rear film of 
the pair, which is of course panchro- 
matic. 

Processing Problems 

After the three negatives have been 
developed, each to its appropriate 
gamma, each must be printed in its 
appropriate color, and the three col- 
or images must be assembled on a 
single strip of film, superimposed one 
over the other and in microscopically 
exact register. 

Technicolor’s method of printing is 
known as “imbibition printing.” 
Fundamentally it works like a rub- 
ber-stamp : a relief image is moistened 
with a colored dye and then brought 
into contact with the film which is to 
carry the final print, on to which the 
dye is transferred. 

Precisely as in using a rubber stamp 
the ink is not transferred to the paper 
by the low portions of the rubber, 
but only by the raised parts, so in this 
case the dye is transferred only by 
the raised parts of the relief image. 
These “matrices,” as they are called, 
are made by printing from the three 
negatives upon ' a special film coated 
with a special emulsion instead of the 
conventional emulsion. 

When this is “developed” in warm 
water, the picture is reproduced in 
varying thicknesses of the gelatin. 
The portions affected by the printing 
light — in other words, the shadows — 
remain unchanged; the parts only 
partially affected — that is, the half- 
tones — are partly removed, and the 
unaffected parts — the highlights — are 
completely washed away. 

Three-color Printing 

Once the matrices are made the first 
step in making a Technicolor print 
is to prepare a black-and-white blank 
on normal positive film. The sound 
track is printed in the usual way at 
this time This is developed, washed 
and fixed in the usual manner. 

The three matrices are then dyed, 
each receiving a dye of a color com- 
plementary to that of its taking fil- 
ter. The red filter negative’s matrix 
is dyed cyanin blue-green; the green 
filter negative’s matrix, magenta; and 
the blue filter negative’s matrix, yel- 
low. This seems illogical at first, but 
it is actually necessary, for we are 
making the print from the thinner 
portions of negatives. 

Suppose we photograph a red ob- 
ject. In the red filter negative the 
image of this red object will be very 
dense; in the other two negatives the 


June, 1937 

red will be represented by very light 
images. 

In our prints, the red object, print- 
ed from the red filter negative, will 
be virtually a clear white; in the 
prints from the other two negatives, 
it will be an extremely dark gray, al- 
most black. If we transferred from 
such matrices with dyes of the same 
colors as the taking filters, our red ob- 
ject would receive no red dye, since 
that area of its matrix would be a 
hollow — but it would receive deposits 
of blue and green. 

Physical Problems 

Therefore to get our color-print as 
it should be we print the red filter 
matrix with a dye that is “minus- 
red,” or blue-green; the blue filter 
matrix with a “minus-blue” dye, or 
yellow; and the green filter matrix 
with a “minus-green” dye, or magen- 
ta. We get no blue-green impression 
of our red object in the first case, 
while the combination of the yellow 
and magenta dyes results in red, for 
the yellow filters out the blue-light 
component of magenta, and leaves 
only red light. 

The result is the red image of the 
red object which we wanted. The 
other colors are produced in the same 
way, while white is an absence of any 
dye-image and black is an equal com- 
bination of all three. 

The physical problems of printing 
these three dye-images in exact regis- 
ter with each other and with the 
black-and-white key image can be 
imagined, especially when the inevi- 
table shrinkage and expansion of the 
several films are added to the prob- 


• American Cinematographer 235 

lem. It has also been a big problem 
to keep the transferred dyes in their 
proper places. 

Modern Speed and Quality 

By any reckoning, the problem is 
not inherently simple. It is hardly 
to be wondered that Technicolor 
prints were traditionally expensive, 
slow in delivery, and sometimes badly 
wanting in definition and consistency. 
The wonder is that they were not 
more so. 

Today, as judged by the evidence 
presented in Wanger’s projection 
room, these difficulties have been al- 
most completely overcome. The qual- 
ity and consistency of modern Tech- 
nicolor prints would be enviable even 
for black-and-white. They are de- 
livered on a schedule scarcely behind 
that of any black-and-white labora- 
tory. And finally. Technicolor release 
prints show a uniformly high quality 
that should give pause to the techni- 
cians turning out the average black- 
and-white release print. 

Many Factors Contribute 

Searching for the reasons for this 
amazing improvement, I first ques- 
tioned J. A. Ball, Technicolor’s tech- 
nical director. “The improvements we 
have made recently cannot be credited 
solely to any one department or to 
any one phase of the process,” he re- 
plied. “It has been more a matter of 
cumulative, relatively small improve- 
ments all along the line, each adding 
to the other like compound interest 
until the sum total is large. 

“Right at the start of the chain the 
lighting equipment we have had on 



Testing laboratory where results of dyeing operations are checked. 



B 


236 American Cinematographer • June, 1937 



our recent productions, specially en- 
gineered for the purpose by Mole- 
Richardson, is unquestionably more 
modem than that generally available 
for black-and-white. The negative 
films we use have been improved in 
detail. Our cinematographers, always 
capable artists and technicians, not 
only have gained more experience 
with the process but have been able 
to work more freely both because of 
these factors and because of a similar 
chgtin of detail improvements made in 
the laboratory under the management 
of Gerald Rackett. 

“We have learned how to develop 
our negatives to what a black-and- 
white technician would call more nor- 
mal standards. This is due principal- 
ly to the fact that improvements in 
printing methods and printing control 
have made it possible to use a thin- 
ner, more normal negative and to 
get better prints thereby. 

“Because of all these improvements 
such related external factors as make- 
up and art direction we have been 
enabled to improve. With all these 
factors improved we in turn get bet- 
ter pictures.” 

Technicolor Camerawork 

Ray Rennahan, director of photog- 
raphy on “Wanger’s Vogues,” in his 
turn gave the lion’s share of the credit 
to the behind-the-scenes staff in lab- 
oratory and research work. 
“Technicolor camerawork,” 
he said, “is still fundamen- 
tally the same. The differ- 
ence is that thanks to the 
improvements made in the 
film and its processing the 
cinematographer has a 
more free hand with which 
to work. We can do things 
today which we could not 
have done a relatively few 
months ago. 

“To start in at the be- 
ginning, between the im- 
provements in film and proc- 
essing the process is consid- 
erably ‘faster’ than it used 
to be. That means that we 
can use a great deal less 
light than was formerly nec- 
essary. Moreover, we now 
have better lamps in the 
H. I. Arcs and Ultra H. I. 

Arcs which give us more 
light than the old sun arcs, 
and give it in a more usable 
beam. That means that we 
can use fewer units and 
simpler lightings. 

“It also means that there 
is less ‘spilled light’ to rely 
on for general lighting. Our 
lightine must be done more 
accurately. 

“One thing that almost 
every cinematographer who 


the best results With lightings slight- 
ly more brilliant than 1 would use in 
black-and-white. With a faster and 
more responsive process I now light 
almost exactly as I would for mono- 
chrome. The highlights do not have 
to be watched as closely as they did 
a little while back, and shadow^ detail 
is also more easily preserved. 

“As to the speed with which a color 
troupe can work — that depends on the 
troupe, not on the color. On the 
Wanger picture we averaged seven- 
teen set-ups a day over the whole 
schedule. One day we did as many 
as forty-two!” 

Rackett Praises Staff 

In the laboratory. Plant Manager 
Rackett paid tribute to his staff. 
“They’re the ones who actually do 
it,” he said, “my task is simply to see 
that they do it as efficiently as pos- 
sible. I came into the organization 
seven years ago with a background of 
practical engineering, but no precon- 
ceived notions of how colored pictures 
should be made. 

“I have simply tried to organize 
things so that we could do the best 
possible work on a commercial sched- 
ule, at a commercial price. As I see 
it, that matter of doing the job com- 
mercially is the difference between re- 
search and engineering. I’ve simply 
tried to engineer our laboratory pro- 
cedure. 

“If we don’t turn out 
prints that reflect the capa- 
bilities of our cameramen 
and their tools, it’s bad en- 
gineering on our part. If 
we turn out unsatisfactory 
daily or release prints 
which have to be replaced, 
again it’s bad engineering. 
If we find ourselves wasting 
time through poor routining 
of operations, or effort 
through overlapping duties 
or responsibilities, it is bad 
plant engineering. 

“The problem may, as in 
this case, be inherently 
complicated. But if we 
apply the correct engineer- 
ing methods to its solution 
we must sooner or later 
come to a solution that eli- 
minates or at least mini- 
mizes those difficulties. In 
this particular case, we 
have an advantage over our 
colleagues in the research 
staff and on the set for we 
are, for the most part, 
working with known facts 
rather than variables, and 
we should be able to reduce 
them to a matter of order- 
ly, efficient commercial 
practice. I think we are 
doing it — but see for your- 
self. The best way to de- 


visits a modern Technicolor set re- 
marks is that the large numbers of 
Side Arcs and overhead ‘Scoops’ that 
used to be so noticeable have almost 
vanished. With more efficient spot- 
lighting units and a process that is 
‘faster’ overall, we don’t need them so 
much. 

Lighting Near Usual 

“We use the side arcs just about 
as extensively as a good black-and- 
white cinematographer uses incandes- 
cent broads — for an occasional fill-in 
light or for flat frontlight in close 
shots. We use the scoops about the 
way the same monochrome cinematog- 
rapher would use overhead inkie 
strips — to help out on extremely large 
sets where we are filming dance 
numbers and the like. 

“The actual lighting level now used 
in Technicolor is extremely close to 
average black-and-white standards. 
Unit for unit our arcs probably give 
more light, but it is easier on the 
eyes and cooler to work under, so it 
is not nearly so noticeable. For ef- 
fect lightings we are probably right 
down to black-and-white standards. 

“I have never subscribed to the 
common belief that color demanded 
flatter lighting than black-and-white. 
Even when the three-color process 
was new I held that color did not lend 
itself well to flat lightings, but gave 


Transfer machines which imbibe dye-image from matrix to blank. 


I 


I 


I 


l 


B 


June, 1937 • American Cinematographer 237 


cide is to go through the plant and 
see how it’s done. 

High Scale Efficiency 

The Technicolor laboratory is a re- 
markable example of production ef- 
ficiency. Nothing about it gives the 
impression of haste, yet the opera- 
tions are scheduled from one step to 
the next as accurately as trains on a 
busy main line. If, for example, the 
final positive or blank of Wanger’s 
Scene No. 213 is scheduled to make 
connections with the blue printer mat- 
rix at 3:20 this afternoon, blank and 
matrix will reach the appropriate ma- 
chine at 3:20 without delay or con- 
fusion. 

To guard against any unforeseeable 
mischance at any stage of the process 
a tolerance of 15 minutes is allowed 
at each control point. This permits 
sufficient leeway to care for virtually 
any contingency without risk of de- 
laying the plant’s schedule for other 
film, or of getting that scene into the 
producer’s hands later than the hour 
promised. 

Negative from Technicolor’s camera 
department is received in the negative 
developing department and developed 
to rigid standards. After substantially 
normal negative processing routine 
the three negatives are routed to the 
negative cutting section, where the 
scenes to be planted are segregated. 

The negatives are next 
submitted to familiar but 
unusually exacting densi- 
tometric tests, and the best 
printing times determined. 

This is done by accurate 
measurement rather than 
by visual inspection. 

Printing Details 

The three matrices and 
the black-and-white blank 
are then printed according 
to these specifications. Each 
print passes through its 
appropriate developing ma- 
chine and emerges on sched- 
ule, ready for the transfer. 

In this operation, the blank 
is fed into a remarkable 
transfer machine in which 
the matter of registering 
the dye-carrying matrix 
and the black-and-white 
blank is taken care of by 
remarkably exact machin- 
ery which brine’s the two 
together, in register, under 
a large roller exerting a 
known pressure. 

The matrix and blank 
are then carried through the 
machine and held in regis- 
ter during the transfer of 
the dye image. This is done 
at a predetermined ideal 
time and under fixed condi- 


tions of temperature and humidity. 

The transfer is repeated twice more, 
while the magenta and yellow images 
are imbibed. Then the completed 
three-color print is delivered to the 
far from tender mercies of a relay of 
inspectors who report on every pos- 
sible detail of the print, accurately re- 
cord their findings, and make sure 
the print adheres to the desired high 
standards of quality. 

The procedure for release prints is 
fundamentally the same. Before re- 
lease prints are made, of course, the 
three negatives have to be cut to 
match the positive as cut by the pro- 
ducer’s film editor, and the various 
scene negatives imprinted with inden- 
tifying edge marks. 

‘Answer’ Precedes Master Print 

As is usual, an answer print is then 
made from the cut negative. This is 
carefully analyzed by representatives 
of Technicolor’s laboratory, camera 
department, etc., and the producer’s 
staff. When every detail of print 
quality has been determined the mas- 
ter print is made and filed. 

Prints identical with the master 
print are made for reference purposes. 
These include two-thirds of the foot- 
age of each release reel. As each 
release print is completed it is taken 
to one of the laboratory’s four inspec- 
tion rooms. Here the release print 


is projected under standard conditions, 
while the reference print is projected 
directly beside it, in synchronism. 

The inspector makes a written re- 
port of each scene in the release print, 
stating its condition as to definition, 
uniformity, density, color balance, 
contrast, and a dozen other items. 
If the print passes this inspection, 
which is the last of a series of four, 
it is shipped to the designated ex- 
change. If not, that print does not 
go out, and immediate inquiry is 
made as to the cause of the imperfec- 
tion. 

It is interesting to note that in 
making Technicolor release prints the 
original negatives are handled far less 
than is the case in black-and-white. 
The negative is printed once to make 
the daily matrices; again to make the 
answer print matrices, and once more 
to make the master print matrices. 

Matrix Life Prolonged 

Then a set of matrices is made for 
release print making and a dupe 
negative of the green filter negative 
made for printing the blanks. There- 
after the negative goes to the vaults 
and release printing is done from the 
matrices and the dupe. The useful 
life of matrices has been enormously 
improved — seventy-five or more print- 
ings from a single set is now com- 
mon. But when the first sign of 
deterioration is observed, a 
completely new set of mat- 
rices is made, and printing 
goes on. 

If recently published re- 
ports to the effect that 500 
release prints are being 
made of Selznick-Interna- 
tional’s “A Star is Born” 
are true, the original nega- 
tives will be printed scarce- 
ly more than ten times for 
the entire half million feet 
plus the inevitable daily an- 
swer and master printing! 

Eight years ago Techni- 
color encountered a sudden 
boom which severely over- 
strained the capacity of the 
laboratory. Experience was 
a good teacher, it seems, 
for all of the firm’s execu- 
tives have resolved never 
to let this hannen again. 
Currently, the plant is oper- 
ating with a volume eoual 
to about 55,000,000 feet a 
year. 

Recant raports indicate 
commitments likely to bring 
the season’s total up to 
more than 60,000,000 feet. 
But accoi’ding to Rackett, 
the plant’s maximum capac- 
ity without increasing 
equipment or personnel, is 

Continued on Pafte 242 



238 American Cinematographer • June, 1937 


ERICKSON DESCRIBES 

TRIPLE 5 STUDIO SPOT 


By CARL R. ERICKSON 

Illuminating Engineer 


T he world of science has at 
one time or another in the last 
fifty years touched practically 
every line of human endeavor and in- 
terest. It is incredible, however, that 
when motion pictures, among the 
world’s latest big brain childs, were 
started no basic engineering was done 
to produce adequate lighting equip- 
ment for the cameraman. The indus- 
try copied identically the old army 
type searchlight, converting it into its 
combination fiood and spot light. 

For refiectors in these units para- 
bolic mirrors of focal lengths com- 
mercially available at the time were 
used regardless of their adaptability 
to the equipment, and are, unfortu- 
nately for those who use them, accept- 
ed as standard. With the advent of 
talking pictures the arc lights were 
replaced by incandescent. However, 
the fundamental design of the units 
was in no way improved. 

It was not until about three years 
ago that actual original research in 


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motion picture lighting equipment de- 
sign was attempted. The first result 
was quite simple, namely, a light 
source the beam of which was con- 
trolled by an echelon or Fresnel type 
lens. The first lamps of this type 
were good, but, as is often true of 
new developments, contained many 
defects. 

Uneven distribution of field, side 
leak light from the lens, and difficul- 
ties with back spherical reflector ad- 
justment are among the problems pre- 
sented by these first small spotlights. 

Two Control Methods 

However, it is now possible to pur- 
chase studio spots which are light in 
weight, contain a lens giving an even 
distribution of light and treated to 
kill leak light absolutely and also con- 
taining a back spherical mirror rigidly 
adjusted at the factory which cannot 
get out of focus. Among these are 
lamps known under the trade name of 
“Keg-Lite.” 

Let us consider for a moment the 
means for controlling light and their 



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relative efficiencies. There are two 
fundamental methods of controlling 
the luminous flux emitted by a light 
source: first, by refractian through a 
lens system, and second by reflection 
from a mirror. 

The first method, refraction, has 
been mentioned. This is the ideal 
method for small key lights, say, up 
to and including those using the 2000- 
watt globe, if we focus our attention 
on incandescent units. Exclusively re- 
fracting units present serious diffi- 
culties if carried to higher wattage. 

High Wattage Problems 

The first is the problem of globe 
heat. The softening point of glass is 
near 1050 degrees Fahrenheit. A 
5000-watt globe will approximate this 
temperature, and unless the heat is 
carried off by adequate cooling the 
globe will take on bulges or blisters 
at the points of most heat concentra- 
tion. 

In floor lamps around a camera 
compactness and lightness are essen- 
tial. Hence the low wattage “Keg- 
Lites” are ideal for this use. But for 
the more powerful lamps which are 
used high on the sets for back lights 
and general lighting the most efficient 
units possible are desired. 

This brings us to the second prob- 
lem of high wattage refracting units, 
namely, their low lighting efficiency 
as compared with reflecting units. The 
transmission of incandescent light 
through Pyrex glass three-eighths of 
an inch thick is 58 per cent of the 
light incident upon the glass. The 
great loss is due to reflections at the 
two surfaces and to absorption by the 
glass itself. This figure applies to the 
glass used in making echelon or Fres- 
nel type lenses contained in studio 
spotlights. 

If, on the other hand, we turn to 
reflecting surfaces, we find that chro- 
mium reflects 62 per cent and silver 
on glass, second surface, from 80 to 
85 per cent of light incident upon 
them respectively. Hence the 24-inch 
studio lamps using either glass or 
metallic mirrors emit a higher per- 
centage of the flux incident upon their 
light projecting member than do units 
employing a lens only. 

Two Systems Combined 

Since the 24-inch sunspot is the 
most widely used lamp throughout the 
studios for larger sets requiring a long 
throw, the adaptation known as the 
Triple 5, developed by Bardwell and 
McAlister, Inc., and which can be 
adapted to the old type 24s now in 
use, was designed to increase the ef- 
ficiency of the 24-inch lamp in the 
center of the field, its weakest area. 

Extreme care was taken in placing 
each member of the new optical sys- 
tem so as to retain the old feature of 






June, 1937 


• American Cinematographer 239 


reflecting light directly from globe to 
mirror to the field characteristic of 
the old 24s. By this method the light 
was not merely redistributed, but new 
light was added to supplement that 
already present in the old 24s. 

In the T-5 there is a combination of 
two optical systems. In any device 
employing two independent movements 
greater flexibility of adjustment can 
be obtained than is the case with only 
one movement. 


How Pictures Are Made 

Continued from Page 231 

which Electrical Supervisor Frank 
Graves told how the electricians rig 
a set for the cinematographer’s light- 
ing. 


Joe Valentine Obliges 

Joseph Valentine, A.S.C., and his 
camera crew illustrated the lighting 
and photographing of a longshot and 
a close-up. For these Deanna Durbin 
and Mischa Auer went through a 
scene to a playback of the song pre- 
viously recorded. Director of Pho- 
tography Valentine gave an excellent 
demonstration of his lighting tech- 
nique. 

When a member of the audience 
asked how it was that Valentine was 
able to light his set so quickly, Super- 
visor Pasternack replied for him that 
he was repeating a shot already made 
for the production — and that on a 
fresh set-up Valentine would require 
almost five minutes longer! 

Returning to the scoring stage the 
group viewed the projection of 
“rushes” of the sequence demonstrat- 
ed, after which Supervising Film Ed- 
itor Maurice Pivar told how films are 
edited. 

Where Noise Comes From 

Musical Director Charles Previn 
apologized for having to speak extem- 
poraneously, and proceeded to give a 
most amusing and highly informa- 
tive discussion of how music is tail- 
ored to fit a picture, illustrating by 
showing a sequence from “Wings 
Over Honolulu” with two different ac- 
companiments which altered the dra- 
matic meaning of the action com- 
pletely. 

In conclusion Edwin Wetzel, dub- 
bing mixer, demonstrated how music, 
sound effects such as crowd noise, in- 
cidental singing, thunder, rain and air- 
plane motor roars are “dubbed” into 
the sound track recorded on the set. 
In his demonstration eight different 
sound tracks were combined to give 
meaning to another sequence from 
“Wings Over Honolulu.” 

This demonstration of the details of 


Hence in the T-5 it is possible to ob- 
tain a more uniformly lighted field 
than is possible with a single move- 
ment lamp. This combination of a 
diiferential motion with an open face 
lamp employing ‘direct reflectors is 
why the T-5 will give three times as 
much even flood light as any other 
unit of equal wattage. 

Tests have proven that a 2009-watt 
globe used in this new equipment pro- 
duces the same light intensity on flood 


as a 5000-watt globe in the old 24 as 
well as smoothing the field and elim- 
inating the black spots. Most of 
the studios which now have this type 
of equipment are using 2000-watt 
globes, thereby cutting their globe 
cost and current consumption in half. 

It is our belief that the T-5 is only 
the first step in a complete revolu- 
tionizing of the fundamentals of studio 
lights in the interest of greater light- 
ing efficiency. 


T 


picture making was one of the most 
complete ever offered to any group 
by a Hollywood studio and reflects 
the greatest credit upon the spirit of 
the New Universal from executives 
down to the unseen electricians, sound 
men and others who participated be- 
hind the scenes, and upon Past Presi- 
dent Tasker, who organized and di- 
rected this most unusual demonstra- 
tion. 

▼ 

BACH ATTENDS CONVENTION 

W. A. Bach, managing director of 
Western Electric Company, Ltd., Lon- 
don, was in Hollywood attending the 
convention. 

J. P. Maxfield of the New York of- 
fice also was in Hollywood attending 
the convention. 


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240 American Cinematographer • June, 1937 


A.S.C. ON PARADE 


• Virgil Miller, A.S.C., for the first 
time in eight years is shooting on 
straight production. He is at Twen- 
tieth Century-Fox photographing 
“Danger — Love at Work,” featuring 
Simone Simon. For many years he 
was at the head of the Paramount 
camera department. Recently he has 
photographed special effects on “The 
Garden of Allah” and “Little Lord 
Fauntleroy.” 

• Karl Freund, A.S.C., while photo- 
graphing Greta Garbo in “Madame 
Walewska,” took advantage of a pro- 
duction lull to slip downtown and take 
out his final citizenship papers. On 
his return to the set he found the 
leading woman had arranged for the 
decoration of his camera with an 
American flag and for an orchestra to 
greet him with “The Stars and Stripes 
Forever.” The player herself remains 
a Swedish subject. 


• J. Dev. Jennings, A.S.C., took the 
honors at Paramount’s golf tourney, 
winning over 246 competitors. He 
turned in a par score of 71. 

• Oliver Marsh, A.S.C., and Jack 
Smith, A.S.C., left Hollywood May 20 
for Lone Pine to photograph back- 
grounds for M. G. M.’s “The Firefly.” 

• John Mescall, A.SX., has been 
seized with a golf thought — in fact, 
two of them. And when John has 
anything like that percolating his sys- 
tem the golfing multitude which never 
has been able to approach the heights 
which he takes so easily sits up in 
the hope of getting a straight and 
useful tip. 

“Driving is a science,” suggests 
John, “irons are an art, and putting 
is an inspiration. 

“Golf seems to be a game of oppo- 
sites,” he goes on. “For a right hand 


player to hit from right to left across 
the line of play causes the ball to 
slice. In other words, by hitting to 
the left you go to the right. From 
left to right across the line of play 
causes a hook or pull. That is, by 
hitting to the right you go to the left. 
To hit down on your ball makes it 
go up. To hit up on your ball makes 
it go down or fly low.” 

• Ted Sparkuhl, A.S.C., and a Para- 
mount technical crew slipped across 
country to New York during May to 
film scenes with Kirsten Flagstad, 
opera singer, for “The Big Broadcast 
of 1938.” The scenes were shot at 
the Astoria plant in Long Island City. 

• Ernest Haller, A.S.C., starts June 
14 on “The Great Garrick” at War- 
ners. James Whale directs. 

• Elmer Dyer, A.S.C., had a busy 
month in May. On the 3rd he left 
for Louisville to join an M.G.M. out- 
fit shooting backgrounds in the Blue- 
grass country for “One Came Home,” 
regular production on which was due 
to start early in June. 

When that job was finished he was 
ordered home by plane. Then he was 
notified he was to leave in four days, 
on the 22nd, for New York and thence 
to London. There he was scheduled 
to do air work for the company mak- 
ing M.G.M’s first British subject and 
also incidentally by an English troupe. 
Mrs. Dyer accompanied. 


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New and Used Equipment Always Available 


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is a specialty of our experienced technicians. 




June, 1937 • American Cinematographer 241 


• Joe Dubray, A.S.C., sailed for 
Europe May 24. He had been await- 
ing’ sailing orders for quite some 
time. The veteran cameraman and 
technician will represent the Bell and 
Howell factory in England, France 
and Europe generally. No definite 
time has been set for his return. 

• Joe Valentine, A.S.C., shooting “A 
Hundred Men and a Girl,” found him- 
self just one of a host of Joes. For 
instance, there was Joe Lappis, the 
sound man; Joe Pasternak, the as- 
sociate producer, and even the gaffer 
responded to no name but Joe. 

• Harry Perry, A.S.C., whose talk 
to the Associated Motion Picture 
Pilots was printed in the May issue 
of this magazine, left Los Angeles 
May 27 on assignment from Para- 
mount. His first stop will be London, 
where he will prepare to photograph 
background shots at the Ascot races 
for Pai'amount’s “Angel.” 

Following completion of this as- 
signment he will visit Paris, Vienna, 
Nice and Prague to photograph back- 
grounds for Ernst Lubitsch’s “Blue- 

• leard’s Eighth Wife,” for Paramount, 
.)f course. If Harry wearies of his 
assignment and wants to come home 
there is a chance, remote possibly but 
nevertheless a chance, some reluctant 
brother-member might be cajoled into 
helping him out by finishing the job. 

• Harry C. Neuman, A.S.C., has been 
assigned to photograph Sol Lesser’s 
“The Californian.” 

• Victor Milner, A.S.C., took a crew 
to New Orleans for preliminary work 
on DeMille’s “The Buccaneer” for 
Paramount. 

• Charles Marshall, A.S.C., and Clyde 
De Vinna, A.S.C., have returned from 
Louisville, where they were working 
on backgrounds for M.G.M.’s “One 
Came Home.” 

• Charles Clark. A.S assigned to 
M.G.M.’s “General Hospital.” 

• A1 Gilks, A.S.C., had a chance to 
get a look-see at “Thunder in the 
City,” when it was shown during the 
month at the Paramount Theater. 
The subject was one he photographed 
for Atlantic Films at the Alexander 
Korda studio in Denham, England. 

• Charles W. Herbert, A.S.C., who 
has been on a long assignment in the 
Orient for March of Time, arrived in 
Hollywood by way of Honolulu and 
interrupted his vacation to remain for 
the Engineers’ convention. On its 
conclusion Charlie, accompanied by 
Mrs. Herbert, slid away for a couple 
of months in his Montana mountain 
home. 

• Georges Benoit, A.S.C., public re- 
lations committeeman in Paris for 


his organization, writes from Cairo, 
Egypt, that he will be in that city un- 
til the middle of June. He was called 
there by the Egyptian Abdel Wahab 
for a picture. The studio is well 
equipped. While the weather is warm 
Georges states work starts at 4 P.M. 
and stops at 1 A.M. And he sends 
his regards to all. 

• Willard Vander Veer, A.S.C., win- 
ner of an Academy award for pho- 
tographic achievement in 1930, win- 
ner of a Congressional Medal, both 
on account of his work with Byrd in 
the Antarctic, has received word he 
has been chosen a Fellow in the Roy- 
al Photographic Society. 


REFLEX FOCUSER FOR C-K 
SPECIAL 

A reflex focusing attachment for 
the Cine-kodak Special is announced 
by Hugo Mayer. The device is intended 
especially for use when 200-foot mag- 
azines are used, when the Special’s 
regular reflex focuser cannot easily 
be viewed. 

The new attachment consists of a 
double reflecting element which re- 
flects the image seen in the reflex fo- 
cuser upward, to the right and then 
through a mag’nifying telescope to a 
convenient position at the rear of the 
camera. It may be used also with 
standard 100-foot magazines. 



Everything Photographic 

for Professional and Amateur 

New and Used, bought, sold, rented and 
repaired. Designers and manufac- 
turers of H. C. E. Combination 
lens shade and filter-holder 
for any size lens. 

Hollywood Camera Exchange 

1600 Cahuenga Blvd., 

Hollywood 
Tel. HO 3651 
Cable Address: HOcamex 

Send for Bargain Catalog 



Precision in Lighting 



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Hollywood, Calif. 





242 American Cinematographer 


New Leica Projector 

With simple “one shot” methods 
of color photography coming more 
and more into prominence for amateur 
use greater emphasis has lately been 
placed on projection, for that is one 
of the best manners in which color 
transparencies such as Kodachrome 
can be enjoyed. In addition, the pro- 
jection of black and white studies re- 
veals details and depths of tones un- 
suspected in a paper print. 

For the proper projection of color 
transparencies a projector must meet 
certain requirements both in connec- 
tion with its optical system and ven- 
tilation. The screen image must be 
brilliant and sharp, and the ventila- 
tion such that in normal use the del- 
icate colors of the transparency are 
not destroyed by the heat. Projec- 
tors meeting these requirements are 
usually designed for use by lecturers 
and in large halls and consequently 
not very adaptable for home use. 

The new Leitz \TI1-S Projector. 


COMPLETE STUDIO 
EQUIPMENT 

KRUSE CAMERA RENTALS 

1033 N. Cahuenga Nite MO. 13470 

HI. 4464 


June, 1937 

made by the makers of the Leica cam- 
era, was designed with these consider- 
ations in mind, and while it gives a 
brilliant image for use with moderate- 
ly large gatherings it is also adapt- 
able for home use. It employs a 250- 
watt bulb. 

▼ 

Agfa Ansco Now Building 
Hollywood Office Plant 

Agfa Ansco Corporation has com- 
pleted plans for construction of its 
own building to provide greater serv- 
ice to producing companies and cus- 
tomers in Hollywood. Rapid expan- 
sion of Agfa business during the 
past two years necessitated that 
larger quarters be obtained, and a 
two story structure is now going up 
at the corner of Cole avenue and 
Santa Monica boulevard. 

Plans provide for large research 
laboratories and spacious warehouse 
in the rear of the first floor, with 
loading platform at the entrance on 
Cole avenue. 

Coast headquarters of Agfa Ansco 
Corporation will be housed in spa- 
cious offices on the gi'ound floor, 
while the entire second floor will be 
used for offices of C. King Charney, 
Inc., exclusive distributors of Agfa 
motion picture film in the United 
States. 


Technicolor Brings New 
Charm to Screen 

Continued from Page 2o7 

in excess of 75,000,000 feet of first- 
class color per year. 

The recently opened Technicolor 
Laboratory in London will add a 
further 25,000,00!) feet a year to this 
capacity, bringing the present maxi- 
mum of good Technicolor to more 
than 100,000,000 feet a year. Dr. 
Herbert Kalmus, Technicolor presi- 
dent, is now in England inspecting 
this plant which, in addition to serv- 
ing European producers, will print 
foreign releases of American-made 
Technicolor productions at a consider- 
able saving in shipping cost and 
duties. 

Hundred .Million Feet Capacity 

The factor of safety is paramount 
throughout. All of the machinery is 
disassembled, inspected and over- 
hauled every w'eek. E.xhaustive tests 
are made daily to ensure consistency 
of the chemical operations. The tech- 
nicians are thoroughly trained in the 
routine and methods of the plant, 
and W’ork under regulations which, 
while perfectly logical, are aimed to 
eliminate duplication of effort and 
snap judgments. 

There is no restriction against mak- 
ing constructive criticisms of any 
phase of operation. The cardinal sin 
is saying “I think,” but if you can 
bring concrete facts that change the 
“I think” to “I know^” those facts wall 
be listened to. 

For this reason the man who makes 
a mistake in his work is invariably 
the first to report it, for a normal 
mistake will not be held against him. 
Instead, it will perhaps lead to an im- 
provement in methods, etjuipment or 
routine which will make its repeti- 
tion impossible. 

And there, underlying the array of 
amazing precision machinery and the 
timetable scheduling of operations, 
lies the final — and by no means least 
— factor in the steady improvement 
in Technicolor technique! 


BARDWELL & 
McAlister, inc. 

ansiounces ^he 

TUIPLE-5 

Declared by Studio 
Technicians the most 
outstanding develop- 
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Bardwell 



McAlister. Inc. 


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Fearless Fox 

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Two velocilators. both slightly used, 
but in such perfect condition that they 
cannot be distinguished from new, are 
available at reasonable prices. 

Phone, write or wire 
for quotations. 

Camera Equipment, Inc. 

1600 Broadway New York, N. Y. 

Telephone: BRyant 9-4146 

Cable Address: Cinequip 




June, 1937 


• American Cinematographer 243 


A Great Convention 

Continued from Page 228 

when it comes to screen entertain- 
ment. 

The setting was not in one of the 
present day palaces designed for the 
superb reproduction of the results of 
the highest studio skill. It was pro- 
jected by necessarily hastily planted 
apparatus and reproduced on a screen 
that was temporary. In other words 
the every-day duty of the improvised 
theatre was that of a high-class dining 
room. 

Just listen to a recital of the pro- 
gram: The curtain raiser was Fitz- 
patrick’s “Rocky Mountain Grandeur,” 
with vocal and instrumental sound ac- 
companiment. Then there were a half 
dozen other shorts, one after another 
five Walt Disney’s Academy Award 
winners, beginning with the 1932 de- 
cision. There were “Flowers and 
Trees,” “Three Little Pigs,” “The 
Tortoise and the Hare,” “Three Kit- 
tens,” and “Country Cousin.” 

Bruce Knows Outdoors 

And then came Robert Bruce’s 
“Trees,” bearing the Paramount brand. 
There was a musical background, and 
of course it could have been nothing 
other than the accompaniment vocal 
and instrumental that so splendidly 
fits Joyce Kilmer’s deathless words. 
Bruce has never been topped in his 
short scenics — he never was in the 
black and whites, when his troupe was 
composed not infrequently of one 
other man and a dog — one man to pho- 
tograph the other man and a dog. 

To the lovers of nature — and dogs — 
those pictures may have been seen 
twenty years ago, but the memory 
lingers on. In this recent picture his 
selections of outstanding trees and bits 
of scenery behind and around them, 
every shot a lesson in composition, are 
memories. 

The conclusion of the program was 
Selznick-International’s “A Star Is 
Born.” It was a fitting and a grip- 
ping, a thrilling and a moving, finish 

Ask any of those who crossed the 
country and were fortunate enough to 
catch that Monday evening’s enter- 
tainment among their list of events 
scheduled and otherwise, and if they 
don’t say the night was pretty near 
worth the trip then you may say we 
have been fooling you. 

T 

GOOD NEWS FOR GOOD MEN 

T he EXECUTIVES of Internation- 
al Cinema, Inc., Hollywood film 
laboratory company — among the bet- 
ter known of them being the veteran 
H. T. James, Jack Snyder and Jack 
Guerin — are receiving congratulations 
on the completion of a contract to 
handle all film work for Grand Na- 
tional Pictures. 


It is one of the largest contracts of 
its kind signed in the industry this 
year and is expected to increase by 
approximately $400,090 the gross in- 
come to the company’s revenues for 
1937. And it is good news to the 
many who admire and respect these 
men we have named. 

V 

PRATTS SAIL FOR ENGLAND 
Mr. and Mrs. G. C. Pratt sailed on 
the Berengaria for England May 20. 
They will be absent from Hollywood 
for approximately two months. Mr. 
Pratt is vice president of Electrical 
Research Products, Inc. 



---CINEX--- 

• Light Testers — Polishers used by all 
major studios. We are the Sole Mfrs. 
and Distributors. 

• Mfr. of 16mm and 35mm Recording 
Heads, Amplifiers, Developing Machines, 
Printers, Etc. 

CINEMA ARTS— CRAFTS 
914 N. Fairfax HE-1984 Hollywood, Calif. 

I 


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• Newest equipment 

• Cinematographers are invited 
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facilities — under the operative 
direction of Jack Guerin 


Intern a tioiial 
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FILM LABOKATOUY 


6823 Santa Monica Boulevard 
Hollywood. California 
Telephone — Hollywood 3961 
Cable Address: Incinema 


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Art Reeves 

MOTIOIV PICTt RE EQI IPME.VT 

645 North Martel Avenue 
Cable Address ARTREEVES 

T 

HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA, U. S. A. 



244 American Cinematographer 


June, 1987 




Process Engineering 

Continued from PaKe 232 

by a director of special effects pho- 
tography, there must be specialists 
in the design, building and painting of 
miniatures and full scale sets and 
props; molders, riggers, art directors, 
draftsmen and the like. 

There must be laboratory techni- 
cians skilled in the most exacting 
types of negative and positive film de- 
velopment, printing, multiple printing, 
optical printing, dye toning, dupemak- 
ing and sensitometry. 

There must be cutters, projection- 
ists and clerical workers, all of whom 
know not only ordinary studo rou- 
tines but special effects work. Over 
all must be a thoroughly experienced 
chief who is at once a highly trained 
technician, a salesman, a director and 
an executive. 

At his disposal must be not only 
the services of this varied and highly 
skilled personnel, but also a plant 
ample to take care of the physical re- 
((uirements of the work and access to 
an ample library of specially photo- 
graphed background scenes from all 
over the world. 

This matter of organization is what 
marks the final difference between the 
“black magic” pioneering days of spe- 
cial effects cinematography and to- 
day’s commercial special effects en- 
gineering. The early “trick camera- 
man” did much of his work almost 
single handed. 

Today’s special effects specialist 
could probably do so as well — but he 
doesn’t, because it is more efficient 
to utilize the advantages of organiza- 
tion. 

Without this organization special 
effects cinematography would still be 
possible, but it could not be the com- 
mercial asset it is today. 

T 

ACADEMY SURVEYS RADIO 

The Academy Research Council 
committee on short wave radio com- 
munication, under the chairmanship 
of E. H. Hansen of Twentieth Cent- 


ury-Fox Studios, has started a sur- 
vey to determine the amount of radio 
transmitting and receiving equipment 
owned by the major studios and the 
extent to which radio is now used for 
communication between the studio 
and location units. 

After completing this survey, dur- 
ing which information also will be 
assembled on the number of location 
trips to which companies have been 
sent by each of the studios during 
the past year, the committee will 
formulate plans for obtaining maxi- 
mum benefit from the use of radio 
communication between the studios 
and units working on locations where 
there are no other means of commu- 
nication available. 


r MOVIOLA 

FILM EDITING EQUIPMENT 
Used in Every Major Studio. 
Illustrated Literature on request. 

MOVIOLA CO. 

1451 Cordon St. Hollywoo’d, Calif. 


A 


FRIED LITE TESTER 

for determining proper printing 
light intensity 

OPTICAL PRINTERS 
and special machinery 

6154 Santa Monica Blvd. 
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BRULATOUR 

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Personal Service 

Co-operative Service 
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has a graceful new contour which makes it 
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finements are provided . . . the "Calculight” 
Exposure Guide, for quicker lens setting . . . 
and a single-picture exposure device, opening 


to the user of 8 mm. film the fascinating field 
of animation. 

The features of its predecessors ha\e, of 
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self-setting film-footage indicator, accurately 
gear-driven for film economy ... a jolt-proof, 
twin-wedge lens mounting permitting instant 
lens changes without unscrewing . . . and a spy- 
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second matching with fields of extra lenses. 

The master craftsmen who engineer and 
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The new Filmo Stream line 8, equipped with 
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ONE WAY OF 
FINDING OUT! 

There may be more than one 
way to find out how to bring 
added warmth and brilliance to 
your movie shots. But one of the 
best ways of doing it is to load 
your camera with Agfa l6mm. 
Hypan Reversible Film! 

This remarkable new high-speed 
film is especially designed for 
outdoor work. It is fast — bril- 
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screen results with added snap. 
It is fine grain and panchromatic. 

Agfa Hypan comes in 100-foot 
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Made by 

AGFA ANSCO 
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IN BINGHAMTON, N. Y. 



250 American Cinematographeir • June, 1937 


AMATEUR 

MOVIE 

SECTION 



SOCIETY 
OF AMATEUR 
CINEMATOGRAPHERS 


BOARD OF RP:V1EW 

John Arnold, President, A.S.C., Executive 
Director of Photog’raphy, M.G.M. Studios. 

Karl Struss, A.S.C., Director of Photog- 
raphy, Paramount Studios, Academy Award 
Winner, 1928 

Fred W. Jackman, Treasurer, American So- 
ciety of Cinematographers 

Dan Clark, A.S.C., Director of Photog- 
raphy, 29th Century-Fox 

David Abel, A.S.C., Director of Photog- 
raphy of Fred Astaire Productions, R.K.O. 
Studios 


Contents.... 


Columbia University Sponsoring Littles’ 
International Salon 251 

Build Fastest Sky Camera to shoot 
Eclipse 252 

Camera Toting Medico Brings Film a 
Plenty 254 

For Best Results Plan Vacations on 
Budget Basis 256 

News of the Movie Clubs 258 

Dr. Sease, A.S.C., Talks to Philadel- 
phians 258 


Demonstrate New Eastman Projector . ..261 


Leavitt Represents Uni vex in West 263 

16mm Sound Displacing 35mm in Busi- 
ness Way 262 

By A. Shapiro 

Composition Not So Tough as Is Often 
Claimed 264 

Advanced Cineamateurs Hail Dupont’s 
New 16mm 265 

Oswald, Ten Years Old, Going Big in 8 

and 16 mm 266 

Here’s the Answei- 267 

Clifford Nelson Shows Films at 
Rochester 268 


June, 1937 • American Cinematographer 251 


COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
SPONSORING LITTLES' 
INTERNATIONAL SALON 


T he international cinema salon for 1938, or the First 

International Amateur Movie Show, as it may be called, is al- 
ready an established fact. The prog-ram will be under the per- 
sonal supervision of Duncan MacD. Little. 

But behind this enterprise will be all the prestige and enormous 
influence of Columbia University, the Extension Service of which 


will take under its wing and its aus- 
pices not only the international proj- 
ect but Duncan Little’s Ninth Annual 
Movie Party as well. 

Film Study, new division of Colum- 
bia University Extension, will devote 
two of the twenty weekly cinema ses- 
sions to amateur motion pictures. 
These will be conducted in the Mc- 
Millin Academic Theater. Both will 
be held some time during April of 
next year. 

The first will be what heretofore 
has been known as the annual movie 
party of Mr. and Mrs. Little and the 
second the International. 

“The Littles’ party got completely 
out of hand this year,” writes Dan 
Anderson in the Sun of New York 
May 22. “Its fame had spread until 
so many amateur cinema enthusiasts 
wished to attend that Mr. Little knew 
that it would no longer fit into his 
home and hired a hall. Even at that, 
an expected attendance of 250 turned 
into 335, to see a selection of repre- 
sentative amateur films. 

Selection Plan to Remain 

“He’d be needing Madison Square 
Garden in 1938, and it will relieve him 
of a burden and at the same time 
give the showing a fine sponsorship 
to have Columbia present it. The 
films will be selected by the same 
process that they have been lately, 
under Mr. Little’s general supervision 
by a committee of qualified judges, 
probably again including Eileen Creel- 
man, motion picture critic of The Sun. 

“Mr. Little had expressed a hope 
that, perhaps by 1939, the party 
would take on the aspect of an inter- 
national salon, but now Columbia 
will bring that into being a year 
earlier, and make it an event separate 
from the mainly American program. 

“Probably ten nations will be rep- 
resented by films chosen in competi- 
tions sponsored by amateur cinema 


organizations to select each country’s 
best. The United States, Great 
Britain, France, Canada and Japan 
definitely will be among those show- 
ing; so much has already been ar- 
ranged. There are plenty of other 
nations with central organizations of 
sufficient standing to select a repre- 
sentative film, and any difficulty will 
probably be in keeping the program 
down to a proper length. 

“The plans were discussed at a 
gathering night before last in Mr. 
Little’s home, those present including 
Dr. James C. Egbert, Director of 
Columbia Extension, and Dr. Russell 
Potter, associate director, under 
whose immediate supervision Film 
Study comes. The new division has 
other aspects not so directly affecting 
amateurs, but which will be of interest 
to them and to all persons who are 
cinema-minded.” 

Show for Holidays 

In a letter to the editor of this 
magazine Doctor Potter inquires as 
to the view here of the possibility of 
there being general interest in a show- 
ing of amateur films some time before 
Chi'istmas, to be in the same series 
and the program to be arranged by 
The Cinematographer. 

“The two showings that are already 
planned will consist exclusively of 
1937 films,” suggests Doctor Potter. 
“The one which I am proposing to 
you would include films of slightly 
earlier vintage, prints of most of 
which I suspect are in your files.” 

To this magazine the suggestion 
“sounds good.” Whatever may be 
done by this publication to further the 
project being conducted by Mr. and 
Mrs. Little and Columbia University 
we shall consider it an honor to do. 
It is true that in the not-quite archives 
of The Cinematographer are some 
excellent examples of eai’lier amateur 
films. 


In a long wire from Mr. Little un- 
der date of May 12 the question was 
asked: “Privilege requested now best 

film your contest for inclusion Inter- 
national Exhibit stop Trust can be 
first screening in East.” 

The Cinematographer made prompt 
response. “By all means. Yes,” was 
the word. “A request in return: May 
we state in advertising our contest 
that best American entrant in The 
Cinematographer’s contest will by 
that publication, in behalf of and in 
the entire interest of that contestant, 
be entered in the International Salon 
as a contender for All American hon- 
ors and if successful be a competitor 
in the grand final?” 

No denial to this response has as 
yet been received from the East, and 
it is fair to assume it has been not 
unfavorably considered. Probably 
readers of The Cinematographer will 
be advised of the situation in the July 
issue. 

Film Study has issued two an- 
nouncements in folder form, with the 
particular days in April yet to be set, 
copies of which are as follows: 

▼ 

Dl NCAN LITTLE’S NINTH 
ANNL'AL MOVIE PARTY 
Wednesday, April , 1938 

As a part of its series, "Motion 
Picture Parade,” Film Study will 
sponsor next year Duncan Little’s 
Ninth Annual Movie Party. Screen- 
ing will take place in McMillin Aca- 
demic Theater on Wednesday evening, 
April . 

The first Annual Movie Party was 
given by Mr. and Mrs. Duncan MacD. 
Little in the spring of 1929; there 
were twelve guests. At the last party, 
held in April of this year, there were 
335 — all of whom, it should be related, 
remained to the enthusiastic close of 
the evening-. 

“In the early days,” writes Mr. 
Little, “few of the films were really 
good, but in 1937 only one was not 
excellent, at least in some respect; 
most were excellent in many re- 
spects.” 

Following the Eighth Annual Movie 

Continued on Page 261 


252 American Cinematographer • June, 1937 


BUILD FASTEST 
SKY CAMERA TO 
SHOOT ECLIPSE 


Professor Smiley of Brown University 
in Peru with F-1 Schmidt Lens-Mirror 
Camera Seeking Record Coronal Result 


H IS GOAL a Peru mountain top, 
Prof. Charles H. Smiley, directoi- 
of the Ladd Observatory at 
Brown University, has sailed for 
South America to photograph a total 
eclipse of the sun June 8, using what 
is believed to be the fastest astro- 
nomical camera ever built. He expects 
to record more of the sun’s outer 
corona than has been possible before. 

The camera has a lens speed of f:l 
and a Schmidt lens-mirror system 
which had to be ground and polished 
to within one-millionth of an inch of 
perfection. Prof. Smiley and his as- 
sistants have taken more than a year 
to build the camera, after optical 
companies refused to undertake such 
a delicate problem. 

To Peru with Camera 

The eclipse, which will last longer 
than any other in more than 100 
years, will begin its totality at sun- 
rise north of the Fiji Islands and 
swing northward in an 8000-mile arc, 
150 miles wide, across the equator to 
the tenth parallel. 

Here the period of totality will be 
seven minutes and seven seconds. The 
path of darkness will then turn 
southward, crossing the equator west 
of the Galapagos Islands, ending in 
Peru at sunset. 

With no convenient islands in the 
path of the eclipse. Prof. Smiley will 
select a vantage point on some coastal 
mountain in Peru. Accompanied by 
an Indian guide, he expects to explore 
the coastal range north of Chimbote 
to find a location above the coastal 
fog. This means that he will work 
from an altitude of at least 3,009 feet. 

Conditions will not be ideal for 
photographing the eclipse, according 
to Prof. Smiley. The sun will be low 
on the horizon and light rays will be 
distorted by the atmosphere, although 
the period of totality will last about 
three and one-half minutes. 


The fast camera, however, will 
make it possible for Prof. Smiley to 
use color filters and eliminate all but 
the more direct red rays of the sun. 
He expects to get a comparatively 
small photograph of the actual ecLpse, 
with most of the negative exposed to 
catch the image of the long tongues 
of gaseous fire in the corona as they 
shoot out for millions of miles into 
space. 

Unusual Factors 

Prof. Smiley’s assistants, Harry A. 
MacKnight, Donald S. Reed and 
Frederick W. Hoffman, completed the 
camera at Brown’s Ladd Observatory. 
They then shipped it to Prof. Smiley’s 
head(|uarters in Pasadena. Mr. Mac- 
Knight designed and built two 
machines to do the major part of the 
tooling; Mr. Reed was in charge of 
most of the fine optical work, and 
Mr. Hoffman has contributed mathe- 
matical calculations. 

The Schmidt camera will record a 
field of 20 astronomi'’al degrees, as 
compared with less than the one de- 
gree maximum scope of the reflector 
or ordinary type camera. Light rays 
are drawn through the four-inch lens 
to a spherical mirror, six inches in 
diameter, at the back of the camera. 
From the mirror the rays are record- 
ed on one-inch film. The camera is 
to have a four-inch aperture and a 
four-inch focal length, with a focal 
ratio, or lens speed, of f:l. 

One-Millionth Inch 

The most delicate part of construct- 
ing the camera has been the grinding 
and polishing of the lens and mirror. 
Mr. MacKnight constructed special 
abrasive machinery to grind and 
polish the pyrex glass miri’or and lens 
to within one one-thousandth of an 
inch of perfection. The final touches 
— polishing the lens with a fine 
powder — brought the lens to within 
one-millionth of an inch of perfection. 


Tests were made of the completely 
polished surface, using a wave length 
of light for detecting possible flaws. 

By PROF. CHARLES H. SMILEY 

Director of Ladd Observatory at Brown 
University 

B rown university’s plans to 

observe the solar eclipse of June 
8, 1937, were started in 1932, immedi- 
ately after the total eclipse of August 
31 of that year. Clouds had prevented 
the observation of that eclipse by the 
Brown astronomers at Sweden, Me. 
When and where would be the next 
total solar eclipse which they might 
hope to observe ? 

The eminent American astronomer 
Simon Newcomb had suggested back 
in 1879 that the total solar eclipses 
of 1937, 1955 and 1973 would be un- 
usually fine ones. Professor Charles 
H. Smiley and Paul Eberhart set 
about computing the path of totality 
for this eclipse of June 8, 1937. 

The computations indicated a dura- 
tion of totality of slightly more than 
seven minutes, but Sarah Anne Is- 
land, the only island shown on maps 
in the region most favorable for ob- 
servation, proved not to exist. The 
only land from which the eclipse can 
be observed as total proves to be a 
few small islands in the South Seas 
and the coastal region of northern 
Peru. 

Of the islands in the South Seas, 
there were Mary, Christmas and En- 
derbury. Mary Island is sometimes 
called Canton Island. At Christmas 
Island, the sun will be higher in the 
sky at the time of the eclipse than 
at the other islands, which is a de- 
cided advantage, but the island is so 
near the southern edge of the path 
of totality that it will not be con- 
sidered by observers. Totality will 
last a few seconds at the northern tip; 
the eclipse will not be seen as total 
on the southern part of the island. 

Peru Best Spot 

Best located for observation of the 
eclipse will be Enderbury Island, 
where the eclipse will be seen as total 
an hour and a half after sunrise. 
Totality will last about four minutes 
there, but the island is hardly more 
than a sand bar standing only a few 
feet above high tide. It will be dif- 
ficult if not impossible to land the 
necessary scientific equipment on this 
island. 

Mary Island (or Canton, if you 
choose) offers only slightly better 
facilities for landing equipment. There 
the sun will be about as high as at 
Enderbury Island, but duration will 
be onlv about three minutes and a 
half. 

From a point in the coast range of 
Peru, between Chimbote and Huaraz. 
the total phase of the eclipse will 


June, 1937 • American Cinematographer 253 


last about three minutes and a half, 
but totality occurs only about half an 
hour before sunset and the sun will 
be only about eight degrees above 
the horizon. 

Charles (Cine) Coles Present 

The plans of the group of American 
astronomers which will go under the 
leadership of Dr. S. A. Mitchell of the 
University of Virginia to observe the 
eclipse from Mary Island or Ender- 
bux'y Island are already well known 
through the newspapers and will be 
presented again by numerous broad- 
casts over nation-wide networks. 

To Peru will be going another group 
of American astronomers under the 
leadership of Dr. Clyde Fisher of the 
American Museum of Natural History. 
This party will occupy two observing 
sites in the Andes in northern Peru. 
Dr. Clyde Fisher, Miss Dorothy A. 
Bennett and Charles Coles of the 
American Museum of Natural History 
and Dana K. Bailey of the University 
of Arizona will observe the eclipse 
with photographic and photometric 
equipment from a point near Cerro 
de Pasca. 

To a point between Chimbote and 
Huaraz will go Dr. J. A. Miller of 
Swarthmore College, Dr. S. A. Korff of 
Carnegie Institution and this writer. 
Dr. Miller and Dr. Korff will photo- 
graph the solar corona with long- 
focus cameras; the writer will use the 
short-focus f:l Schmidt camera, the 
fastest camera ever to be used on an 
eclipse expedition, in an attmpt to 
photograph the outer parts of the 
solar corona. 

Three weeks were spent in the 
study of photographic materials. The 
type of film, the color of the filter and 
the sort of developer to be used were 
important considerations. Besides re- 
reading the standard authoritative 
books, I consulted experts on each of 
these subjects. There is probably no 
place in the world with a greater con- 
centration of professional photogra- 
phers than Southern California. 

Host of Photographers 

At Mt. Wilson Observatory are 
many of the world’s leading astro- 
nomical photographers; eight of them 
are members of the National Academy 
of Science. And only a few miles 
away in Hollywood are many tech- 
nical experts responsible for the splen- 
did photographic quality of American 
motion pictures. In an industry using 
thousands of miles of film each year 
all kinds of photographic problems 
are met and solved. 

Two kinds of photographs will be 
taken, one on green-sensitive film and 
the other on red-sensitive. The green- 
sensitive film was especially prepared 
by the Eastman Kodak Company’s 
research department for use in our 


Schmidt camera. These film discs, 
one and one-half inches in diameter, 
will be used to photograph the outer 
atmosphere of the sun using only 
light emitted by the corona itself, 
most of which is in the green. (Wave- 
length about 5303 Angstroms, if one 
chooses to be technical.) These green- 
sensitive films arrived and one of the 
two dozen discs was used in a sensito- 
metric test to determine their speed. 
It was very pleasing to find that the 
films not only are of very high speed 
but also possess a wide latitude, that 
is, are not so likely to be overex- 
posed or underexposed. A number of 
these green-sensitive films are to be 
used in photographing the southern 
night skies. 

8000 Miles for Four Shots 

The other photographs will be taken 
on an extremely fast supersensitive 
panchromatic film, probably a hyper- 
sensitized to increase its sensitivity 


to the red end of the spectrum. This 
film will use both the light emitted 
and that reflected by the corona in an 
effort to record the outer corona. 

Back in 1878 S. P. Langley observed 
a total solar eclipse and reported he 
was able to see coronal streamers of 
a length twelve times the diameter 
of the sun. No photograph has ever 
shoxvm as much of the corona as man 
has seen, partly because of the short- 
ness of the duration of totality and 
partly because of the slowness of the 
cameras used. We hope we may be 
able to record with our f:l Schmidt 
camera, the fastest astronomical cam- 
era ever to go on an eclipse expedi- 
tion, more of the corona than man 
will see. 

To take at most four photographs 
of the eclipse, I shall travel eight 
thousand miles and be away from the 
United States seven weeks. Fortu- 
nately the prospects of clear skies are 
very good. 


Assembling the ivorld’s fastest astronomical camera — Dr. Paul Eberhart 
and Frederick C. Hoffman installing the central unit of the Schmidt 
camera which Prof. Charles H. Smiley of Brown University took with 
him when he sailed for Peru to photograph the total eclipse of the sun 
on June 8. The top ring of the central unit will contain the caynera's 
mirror; the middle rmg, a special supersensitive fibn; and the lower 
dark ring, the camera’s complicated lens, which is convex in the middle, 
coyicave around the edges, and polished to unthin one ynillionth of an 
inch of perfection. Machinery at the base of the camera will turyi it in 
time with the sun. The lower end of the caynera as shown here will be 
pohited toward the sini wheyi Prof. Syniley takes his eclipse pictures. 





254 American Cinematographer • June, 1937 


CAMERA TOTING 
MEDICO BRINGS 
FILM A-PLENTY 


Dr. Roy E. Gerstenkorn Home 
from Ten Months' World Tour 
Packing 10,000 Feet of 16mm 


D r. ROY E. GERSTENKORN, 
Los Angeles physician, member 
of the Los Angeles Cinema Club, 
is home from a ten months’ tour of 
the world. With him and most care- 
fully guarded were more than ten 
thousand feet of exposed 16mm film. 
Recreation had been his primary mo- 
tive. Making a photographic record 
of his trip had been secondary in im- 
portance — by that meaning that re- 
gardless of the weather he continued 
on his duly appointed way. If it 
rained he photographed what he saw 
that seemed to be of interest. He 
would not wait for the clouds to 
break. And sometimes he got some- 


thing very much worth while not in 
spite of but because of the rain. 

The doctor sailed west from the 
Pacific Coast, touching Japan, China, 
Ceylon, Equatorial and South Africa 
and South America. In China he 
traveled 1600 miles up the Yang-tse, 
through the land of floods and drouth, 
of devastation and starvation ; ascend- 
ed the stream where great junks ac- 
tually are towed against the current 
by man power, by swimming men en- 
tirely naked tugging at ropes that 
serve as sole means of motivation. 

It was through a country known 
to the outside world as that of ban- 
dits. Actually it was a country of 


hungry men and women and children. 
The doctor told of a vessel that was 
wrecked, with its back breaking as 
a consequence. Hungry peasants 
saved the lives of passengers and 
crew. They took the rescued ashore — 
and robbed them. Then they returned 
to the craft and stripped it of every- 
thing of any conceivable value. The 
British, French and American navies 
maintain patrol boats, but it is a 
long river. 

Japanese Sequence Strong 

Dr. Gerstenkorn up to the middle of 
May had cut but 1600 feet of the 
10,000 he had exposed. These were 
800 feet of Japanese and an equal 
amount of African equatorial country. 
There had not been time to satisfy 
his not unnatural curiosity to dis- 
cover what the fates held for him in 
what so far is a sealed book. 

The Japanese section is of high 
rank as an educational and a travelog. 
It is a study of the Japanese as a 
people, as a cross section of the life 
of a nation by one who seems to be 
an admirer of the race as he found 
it on its native heath — in the home 
and at work, as a tiller of the soil 
and as a craftsman and an artist. 

The people plainly have welcomed 
the photographer, have gone out of 
their way to put themselves and their 
work and occasionally their play on 
the record. Not only do we see those 
who live in the crowded cities. We go 
along with the doctor out into the 
highways away from the crowd, to a 
Japan that is new to many Ameri- 
cans — a Japan where the women seem 
to feel entirely clothed when what- 
ever garb adox’ns them is suspended 
entirely from the waist, and with 
naught above. Certainly it is a pa- 
tient, an industrious and a cordial 
race. 

Added to the Japanese chapter are 



Lioness leaves kill and strolls right up to car as it slowed to a stop. Lady one of the first 
of her breed Dr. Gerstenkorn encountered on trip. She was not exactly cordial. Photo en- 
larged from 16mm. Camera turned within less than ten feet of object. 



June, 1937 • American Cinematographer 255 


several sequences of life on the Chi- 
nese river boats. These are of unusual 
intimacy. The photographer has gone 
into the thick of the uncounted fleet, 
touched elbows with men and women 
who rarely or even may never have 
set foot on solid ground. 

We see a native dip a big tin into 
the Yang-tse, polluted beyond the 
conception of a Westerner, and pi*o- 
ceed to brew a pot of tea. It is the 
boiling, explains the physician, that 
makes life possible among the tens of 
thousands who live on these craft. 

In Africa the doctor entered at 
Mombasa and traveled to Nairobi, to 
Tanganyika and Lorenzo Marques, 
south to Cape Town and back to Vic- 
toria Falls. While he had been in 
Northern Africa previously it was 
his introduction to Equatorial and 
South Africa. 

The rainy season was well ad- 
vanced, and the country correspond- 
ingly was in excellent condition. So, 
too, were the lions physically, as the 
photographer learned when he reached 
their country. There was a ready ad- 
mission on his part that although he 
photographed at least thirty of the so- 
called king of beasts he experienced 
a continuing thrill when laying a 
camera on them. 

Shooting in the Rain 

In some instances the creatures 
were so near their bodies* were close 
to the fenders or headlights — in one 
the great “dead pan” being ranged 
alongside the machine’s headlight, as 
he was “shot” through an open wind- 
shield. 

One of the more striking sequences 
was that of a group of giraffes photo- 
graphed in a driving rainstorm dur- 
ing the equatorial afterglow that fol- 
lows the setting of the sun. Behind 
the lighter colored grassy plain across 
which the animals were strolling was 
a heavy and strikingly dark, massive 
grove of trees. Behind that stretched 
a gi’eat plain lighter in color direct 
to the horizon. The sky carried a 
weirdly yellowish or near amber as- 
pect for a black and white film. But 
it was a shot any photographer 
secretly or othex'wise would experi- 
ence a thrill in bringing home. And 
the rain was falling and the sun was 
down under. 

It was on one of these early eve- 
nings when Dr. Gerstenkorn wit- 
nessed and also heard a fight be- 
tween wild dogs and hyenas. The 
glow had faded too far to make pos- 
sible a picture, even with the fastest 
film. But very vivid in the doctor’s 
memory was the scream, terrified and 
pitifully appealing, that marked the 
fall of one hyena. In vocal quality it 
had a creeping resemblance to the cry 
of the human feminine in deathly 


terror. Its effect upon the feelings 
even mitigated the contempt which 
humans with all other animals unani- 
mously share against the hyena. And 
incidentally the wild dog rates a close 
second to the hyena in the contempt 
world championship. 

There was another shot the doctor 
muffed while in the Dark Continent. 
That was when a rhino charged a 
railroad train — and derailed the train 
and incidentally also rather marred 
the contour of his own somewhat un- 
cordial physiognomy. 

The doctor recalled an experience 
he encountered in an unforgotten 
river in Uganda. The white hunter 
and the crew knew there were rhinos 
under the surface, but yelling and 
shouting failed to bring a single head 
above water. 

Come L^p ’n’ See Me 

The boat was slid near the shore 
and a native jumped to the bank. 
There in the moist soil he gently pat- 
ted a bare foot. As if in response to 
a straight telegram the heads of a 
dozen rhinos came inquiringly to the 
surface. There they remained for 
several moments and then submerged. 
That is, all did with one exception. 
One old bull remained slyly on watch. 

One of the thrills the doctor 
brought home with him was the film 
record he made at two snake farms, 
one in Africa and the other in South 
America, institutions where poisonous 
snakes are bred and raised for the 
purpose of extracting and converting 


to medicinal use the venom of the bad 
boys. 

These were at Port Elizabeth, 
Africa, and Sao Paulo, Brazil. At the 
former a demonstration was given 
by a native protected by gloves and 
puttees. At the other institution a 
white man is shown without gloves 
handling these naturally somewhat 
nervous children and demonstrating 
the method of extracting the virus. A 
hooded cobra will be rested on the 
broad brim of the operator’s hat. The 
reptile will strike repeatedly at his 
fellows tangled in the hands of the 
demonstrator, but is unable to direct 
a blow at the face that is under the 
hat — which of course in a way 
helps to explain his presence on his 
particular perch. 

The institutions are large and con- 
duct an extensive business. 

Doctor Gerstenkorn cai’ried with 
him on his tour Eastman super and 
panchromatic film and Agfa and 
some Plenachrome. He tropically 
packed his own stock, medically tap- 
ing each box in 100-foot packages. 
After taping he dipped each box in 
melted paraffine. He encountered no 
film trouble. At no time following ex- 
posure w*as it necessary to delay de- 
velopment more than six weeks. 

One of the chief difficulties the doc- 
tor encountei*ed in a photographic 
way was in the equatorial sector. 
There his light meter refused to func- 
tion as it did in all the other many 
thousands of miles he traveled in the 
ten months. 



Three grown-up and two baby hippos clamber up the bank of a stream a couple of hundred 
feet wide and emerge from genuine African jungle. The photographic light had so failed it 
was a question whether any discoverable result would be obtained. Taken from 16mm film. 


256 American Cinematographer • June, 1937 


FOR BEST RESULTS 
PLAN VACATIONS 
ON BUDGET BASIS 


First Set Sum You Can Spend 
and Then if Possible Outline 
Kind of Pictures You'd Keep 


T HERE’S NOTHING particularly 
new about putting vacation movie- 
making on a dollars-and-cents 
budget. Lots of us do that — some be- 
cause we have to, others simply be- 
cause we want to. 

But did you ever think of putting 
vacation moviemaking on an idea 
budget? It pays! 

What’s the trouble with most va- 
cation movies? 

Nine times out of ten it is that 
the result on the screen fails to repro- 
duce what the vacationer really 
wanted to capture in celluloid. In- 
stead of showing the things he wanted 
to remember — the things that made 
the particular place he visited, or the 
particular thing he did, different from 
anything else — his camera all too 
often catches only ordinary things, 
people and events that might just as 
well have been filmed anywhere — if 
they should, indeed, have been filmed 
at all. In effect, he has set up a 
budget of film-footage for himself, 
and then squandered it recklessly on 
non-essentials. 

The budget idea is fundamentally 
good, but if it is to work satisfactorily 
it should be extended to cover not 
alone the film used but the subjects 
upon which that film is exposed. 

Every motion picture has, or should 
have, a story to tell; not necessarily 
a dramatic plot with heroes, villains 
and clinches, but something that can 
answer one or more of these simple 
questions; “Where?” “What?” 
“Who?” “How?” Every picture that 
is worth looking at must answer 
at least one of them. 

Fortunately, too, every imaginable 
type of vacation can in itself be classi- 
fied under one of those four head- 
ings. 

Get Bearings First 

The way, then, to start off on this 
business of budgeting your vacation- 
film ideas is to sit down and decide 
whether your vacation memories will 
be most concerned with the “Where?” 
of the vacation, the “What?”, the 
“Who?” or the “How?” Once you 
know that you can immediately tell 


what your vacation camerawork ought 
to concentrate upon. 

You will in all probability have de- 
termined already how much film you 
wish to shoot and whether you will 
use black-and-white or color. From 
past experience you will have a pretty 
fair idea of the allowances to be 
made for your own shortcomings — for 
NG’d scenes and the like. 

So by now you know what should 
be the main interest of your vacation 
filming and how much film you can 
allow yourself to shoot. Since few 
pictures can confine themselves ex- 
clusively to answering one question, 
allow some footage for these supple- 
mentary answers. Then, if you force 
yourself to say no to every sugges- 
tion of filming anything that doesn’t 
have its definite part in this scheme, 
your film must inevitably tell the 
story you want it to tell. 

The biggest problem, of course, is 
in recognizing beforehand what kind 


Pass the Word Along 

S ometimes when you are out 
on a hunt for worthwhile 
shots and things happen that in 
your experience are quite out of 
the ordinary, things that have 
interest for you and which you 
have no reason to believe would 
not interest others: 

At your first opportunity 
write us about it. 

If you have bumped into a 
snag which we may help to clear 
up we’ll try to do just that. And 
if you unaided have surmounted 
something new to you in the 
way of difficulties so much the 
better for reader interest. 

But pass the word along. 


of a vacation yours is going to be — 
whether it is a “Where” vacation, a 
“What,” “Who” or “How.” This 
isn’t nearly as difficult as it seems, 
however, if you take the time to an- 
alyze your plans. 

Just Plan Your Trip 

Suppose you’re one of those pros- 
perous people who plan to vacation in 
Hawaii. Generally speaking, a trip 
like this is definitely a “Where” story. 
Outside of perhaps half-a-dozen shots 
made on the boat and (if possible) 
one or two of it, your real story 
needn’t concern itself with any part 
of the boat trip beyond simply es- 
tablishing the fact that you sailed 
from such-and-such a port on such a 
boat and got to Honolulu. Unless 
luck should bring you some unusual- 
ly interesting shipmate like Mrs. 
Roosevelt or Greta Garbo, you needn’t 
expend film on your fellow-travelers; 
they’ll be forgotten as soon as you’ve 
crossed the gang-plank. 

The same is true also of chance- 
met travelers in Hawaii. You’ll prob- 
ably never see them again; you pi’ob- 
ably won’t remember them; they cer- 
tainly won’t be greatly different from 
the folks you’d meet at home or any- 
where else — so why waste film on 
them ? 

Once in Hawaii your real story be- 
gins, and it is very definitely a 
“Where” story. You’ve used un per- 
haps twenty-five feet (16mm.) of your 
film supply establishing the fact that 
you traveled to the Islands. The re- 
mainder of your shooting should con- 
cern itself with the really character- 
istic things you see there. 

Allow a minimum of footage for 
scenes that show Honolulu to be, in 
spite of its location, a thoroughly 
modern American city. Because it is 
such a city, it is in itself no more 


June, 1937 • American Cinematographer 257 


interesting for your purpose than 
Keokuk or Des Moines. 

What you will really want to show 
the folks back home is the scenic 
beauty of Hawaii; the pineapple and 
sugar fields; Kilauea and the firepits; 
Waikiki and Diamond Head, and the 
really characteristic phases of Hawai- 
ian native life. The Hula dancers and 
surfboard riders are just as much a 
part of the “Where” of your story 
as is Diamond Head — and where else 
in the territorial United States could 
you duplicate the shots of the fellow 
who so unctuously munches a wrig- 
gling, very animatedly uncooked fish? 

Get the Novel 

Keep your camera trained on these 
things, insofar as possible, avoiding 
showing modernities in the back- 
ground or tourists in the foreground 
of your shots, and you will bring back 
the kind of a picture you want, wfithin 
the footage you planned. 

On the other hand, suppose you 
make the same trip by air, on the 
China Clipper. In this case your pic- 
ture should have much more to say 
about the “How” of your trip. Fully 
half of the footage can well be de- 
voted to telling how you made the 
trip. Go into detail about it. 

If you can, arrange to be at the 
Alameda airport well ahead of time — 
if possible, spend a day or so there 
before you start. Get a shot of the 
inbound Clipper landing. Get shots 
of the field organization — the me- 
chanics tuning up the motors — the 
radio operators at the station at their 
work — the pilots checking weather- 
maps — the baggage, the mail and ex- 
press cargoes being weighed in and 
loaded. 

Plan for Inter-Cut 

Then show the passengers coming 
aboard, the hatches being closed, and 
the plane taking off. If you can 
manage to film another take-off, it 
will help, for you can inter-cut this 
scene with shots you make from your 
own ship on its take-off. Show San 
Francisco falling below and behind 
you — aside from its story value, it is 
one of the most beautiful cities in 
the world from the air. 

Then get any shots en route that 
may seem interesting: passing over 
an ocean liner — interesting cloud 
formations — and shots inside the 
plane showing how your fellow pas- 
sengers enjoyed the flight. Finally 
show the landing and, if you can, a 
long-shot of another Clipper landing, 
to be inter-cut as you did the take- 
off shots. From there on your story 
of Hawaii will be the same as though 
you had reached the Islands by boat. 

If, on the other hand, the really 
important thing about your vacation 


is not so much where you went or 
how you went there, but what you 
did when you got there, your picture 
ought to confine itself largely to tell- 
ing “What.” Let’s say you trek to 
the Rogue River country of Oregon 
to go fishing, or to the Rockies or 
Switzerland to climb mountains. 

The important thing here is what 
you are doing rather than where you 
do it or who you are. So makei your 
picture show visually the things and 
actions you would describe if someone 
asked you what you did. Your main 
suppTementary phase would concern 
itself mainly with adding details 
showing how you caught salmon or 
how you climbed the Matterhorn. 

Plant Identity of Locale 

And when does the “Who” take the 
spotlight as the main interest of your 
vacation epic ? Only when, in describ- 
ing your vacation, you would natu- 
rally stress with whom you vacationed 
rather than where or how you did it. 
If, for instance, you had the good 
fortune to hobnob with the players in 
Hollywood, everyone would be inter- 
ested in those you were with. They 
would be more interesting than any 
possible shots of Hollywood’s scenery 
or your trip out on the latest stream- 
liner. 

To touch a more familiar picture 
possibility, suppose you take your 
camera on a fishing trip and plan to 
make your films not to entertain your 
friends and club members but simply 


as a personal record of the trip for 
yourself and those who fished with 
you. Here, again, though in a differ- 
ent way, your camera should keep 
itself largely to saying “Who” rather 
than “Where,” “What” or “How.” 

Don’t Bore Visitors 

Make just enough non-personal 
scenes to show that you fished in the 
Rogue River rather than in Hudson 
Bay, and that you caught steelhead 
rather than catfish; but concentrate 
on the really characteristic actions of 
the members of your party. Finally — 
keep a film like this definitely for 
showings to the folks sure to be in- 
terested in it — your immediate circle 
of fellow-fishermen, their families and 
friends. For no matter how good you 
make such a personal record film it 
is not suitable as general entertain- 
ment. 

Finally, if circumstancs (including 
fate and the wife) force you to lens 
“Who” shots during a “Where,” 
“What” or “How” vacation, try to 
have the courage to cut them out of 
your final picture before they have a 
chance to bore outsiders who want to 
see Hawaii rather than Aunt Lizzie or 
the shipboard cut-up. This hard-boiled 
cutting may require diplomatic ex- 
plaining, but it makes a better if 
shorter picture. Best of all, budget 
your ideas as you would your film, and 
you’ll have nothing to explain or ex- 
cuse! 



Close-up of i>eon woman acting as human bellows for the fire under her tortillas is much more 
important to a vacation film of a trip to Mexico than shots of your fellow travelers. 


258 American Cinematographer • 


June, 1937 


NEWS OF THE MOVIE CLUBS 


DR. SEASE OF DUPONT TALKS 
TO PHILADELPHIA CINE CLUB 


PHILADELPHIA, May 14.— The 
May meeting of the Philadelphia Cin- 
ema Club was held in the Crystal 
Room of the Hotel Adelphia. Over 
forty members were present, and we 
had the pleasure of voting on two 
additional members, both of the 
female sex. 

The principal speaker of the eve- 
ning was the very well-known Dr. V. 
B. Sease, ASC, who is director of the 
Red Path Laboratory of the DuPont 
Company, of Parian, N. J. While Dr. 
Sease’s subject was listed as “Cine 
Emulsions,” his field of covei’age was 
quite broad. 

Among the highlights from his 
speech was the fact that color photog- 
raphy had its inception back in 1861, 
when Clark Maxwell discovered that 
by using three filters of the primary 
red, green, and blue he could repro- 
duce any color desired, using at that 
time what was known as the addi- 
tive process. He called attention fur- 
ther to the fact that the faster the 
developer the more graininess, and 
that change from carbonate devel- 
opers to borax developers slows up 
the action, but to a great extent 
makes a better film emulsion. 

The speaker showed by lantern 
slides the action that takes place 
with the different types of silver bro- 
mide crystals, and that the modern 
formula has sulphate included in it 
to hold down the lumps of silver, and 
thus makes a better emulsion. 

He also brought out that when 
using a slower developer it is well to 
open your lens one stop. Among the 
specialties mentioned were the use of 
an infra-red film to cut down the 
blue and take night scenes in broad 
daylight; the only objection being 
that it turns foliage white. He also 
pointed out that the modern techni- 
color process is practically similar to 
a lithographic action, in the fact that 
the colors are applied to the film in 
practically the same manner. 

A rising vote of thanks was ex- 
tended to Dr. Sease for his very fine 
lecture and answering of questions at 
the open meeting. 

Eugene Lutz of the Philadelphia 
Cinema Club exhibited his color film 
entitled, “Dora Lutz and Her Easter 
Flowers.” This had been taken with 


the Eastman Special, and exhibited to 
a great extent the versatility of that 
machine. 

One of our new members, H. Nelson 
Lewis, exhibited his film entitled “The 
S. S. Wood Minsti’el Show.” This was 
an 8mm film in black and white, taken 
indoors, and was Mr. Lewis’s first 
effort. He used to a great extent an 
ordinary wall-clock to note the pas- 
sage of time in the film. 

Arthur J. Hurth, one of our char- 
ter members, exhibited an 8mm film 
in color, taken during the past year, 
and showed what good results can be 
secured by a proper understanding of 
the machine and the subject. 

J. C. Stuessi of 2107 Irving Park- 
way, Chicago, 111., had requested 
members of the Philadelphia Cinema 
Club to take pictures for him of vari- 
ous scenes in and around Philadel- 
phia of historical importance, sending 
the Club several hundred feet of film, 
in order that the pictures could be 
taken. These films have been com- 
pleted, and were run off at the meet- 
ing, before being sent to Chicago. 

The Cinema Club of the Oranges 
of Orange, N. J., issued an invitation 
to the Philadelphia Cinema Club to 
attend their Ladies Night in Mont- 
clair, N. J. 

The invitation came by way of Dr. 
Bowersox, one of our members. Dr. 
Bowersox also exhibited a film taken 
at the Underwood Hospital, indicat- 
ing medical operations performed be- 
fore the camera, and with the use of 




Dr. Gerstenkorn of L. A. Cinema Club leans 
over African gunboy as latter removes horns 
from animal killed for the Commissary 


only the regulation lighting that is 
employed in an operating room. 

The various films shown were well 
received by the members, the meeting 
breaking up at about 11:30 P.M. 

B. N. LEVENE, 

Chairman of Publications Committee. 

▼ 

CHICAGO CINEMA CLUB 

The Chicago Cinema Club is the 
oldest incorporated amateur movie 
club in the United States. May 21 was 
the tenth anniversary of its first 
meeting, which was held in the 
Charles Harrison Early American 
Room. 

May 6, the club held its business 
meeting and a film analysis, the latter 
conducted by Charlie Wyman. It was 
announced the next analysis would be 
June 3 and that to insure a subject’s 
screening on that date it would be 
necessary to register it before. 

May 13 was Victor Animatograph 
night. Don Oliver was in charge of 
the program. The feature was the 
screening of Dr. Albrecht’s “Wild 
Life of the West and Northwest.” The 
doctor is chief taxidermist of Field 
Museum. 

May 20 the club conducted one of 
its popular features — an auction of 
“cinematic articles,” etc. The auc- 
tioneer handles two kinds of “ar- 
ticles,” these being such as may be 
given to the club and those which are 
to be sold for the individual, the club 
retaining 10 percent of the returns. 
Usually there is entertainment as well 
as profit in the proceedings. 

The feature of the evening, how- 
ever, was the illustrated lecture by 
H. K. Shigeta on “Composition in 
Cinematography.” The lecturer is one 
of the country’s successful photog- 
raphers and is connected with the 
Shigeta-Wright studio. 

At the last business meeting of the 
club, James P. Fitzwater was elected 
president to succeed Mr. Shelter re- 
signed. Sherman Arpp was chosen 
vice president. Peter S. Bezek contin- 
ues as secretary. The editor of News 
Flashes, the club’s newspaper, is S. 
F. Warner. 

▼ 

METROPOLITAN, NEW YORK 

The May bulletin of the Metropoli- 
tan Motion Picture Club of New York 
is one of the more interesting examples 
of these publications of the amateur 
cinematographers. Most of these 
journals — in fact, it may be said all 
that so far have come to the editor’s 
desk — are woi’ks of love, a manifes- 




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260 American Cinematographer • 

tation of the enthusiasm that seems 
to be a part of the make-up of the 
amateur cine follower. 

Robert M. Coles is the secretary of 
the Metropolitan and Edith J. Schroe- 
der is the editor. The bulletin is of one 
8 }^ by 11 inch sheet printed on both 
sides. The title “Close-Up” is printed 
at the top of a reverse plate 1% 
by 2 inches. Across the center is sil- 
houtted in white the skyline of Little 
Old N. Y. In prolongation on each 
side is a roll of film. Across the bot- 
tom are the initials M. P. P. C. 

The first department is under the 
caption of “Hear Ye! Hear Ye!” At 
the left of the caption is a cut of a 
bell in hand. (Just on the quiet, it 
looks suspiciously like a picture of 
the ancient bronze symbol that in 
other years anyway rested over the 
door of the Bell in Hand Tavern in 
Pie Alley, just at the foot of the stairs 
that mounted to the composing room 
of the Boston Herald. The ac- 
companying inscription, if memory 
serve, was “1797.” But surely that is 
not a part of this story.) 

The introductory paragraph re- 
ferred to the growing attendance, fol- 
lowed by the program of screenings 
for May 13. The contributors were 
John J. Klaber, Miss Alice Wright, 
James H. Anderson, Dr. Nelson W. 
Lockwood and Edwin T. Schwai’z. 
The topic of the Round Table discus- 
sion, under the leadership of Mr. 
Carbonaro, was “How and When to 
Use Filtei’s.” Under this is a run- 
around cut of a chef. To his right is 
the word “Announcing” in script fol- 
lowed in the text typewriter by the 
address of the dinner meeting. 

In fact, I’un-around cuts are a fea- 
ture of the make-up of Close-Up. They 
are planted with that regard for com- 
position which should guide the editor 
as well as the photographer. And 
there are eleven of these. 

The M. M. P. C. has its 16mm 
group and its 8mm group. Among the 
subjects shown were those by Miss 
Burt and Mr. Maitland, in both of 
which titles and films have been de- 
veloped by themselves Of peculiar in- 
terest perhaps to many who may be 
unacquainted with members of the 
club is the announcement that Mr. 
Hollywood showed the club’s first 
slow-motion 8mm picture. 

The second page was devoted to 
“Discussions and Screenings at April 
Meeting.” We regret lack of space 
forbids our going into these in detail, 
for in the text there is much that 
will attract the amateur solely for its 
general interest. 

T 

LOS ANGELES 8MM CLUB 

The regular meeting of the Los 
Angeles Eight Millimeter Club was 


June, 1937 


Famous Last Words 

O VERHEARD at a home show- 
ing of amateur films: 
“Annie, don’t be a simp ! 
Don’t let Frank buy that cam- 
era he’s talking about. If you 
do there’ll be no more new 
dresses, no more — And when 
it comes to a fur coat — mmm, 
well, you take it from me. 
Don’t!” 


held in the Auditorium of Eastman 
Kodak Company, May 11. 

Five new members were announced 
by Vice President John E. Walter. 
Robert W. Teorey, William K. Rand, 
Jack Scull, Victor I. Becker, and Dr. 
Marshall A. Carter were the new 
members listed. 

No. 2 of the official publication of 
the Club, Thru the Filter, was passed 
among the members. 

President Loscher asked for an ex- 
pression of the showing of “The 
Covered Wagon” at our next regular 
meeting, and the members were in 
favor of having this popular pi’oduc- 
tion shown. We were reminded that 
an admission charge of 10 cents would 
be made to defray the cost of the 
rental of the film. 

The technical committee was given 
more time to devote to its usual 
period and the members came well 
prepared to ask many interesting 
questions. 

R. E. Merville, who is an occasional 
visitor to our club and who always 
conies prepared to show us something 
“new” in the line of 8mm equipment, 
demonstrated a new Siemens 8mm 
Camera he had just purchased. His 
demonstration proved to be very in- 
teresting as well as educational. 

We were most happy to welcome 
former President Dr. Henry Linek 
back to the club. He has been ill for 
several months. 

C. G. Cornell was called upon to 
give us a report on “News Items” and 
reminded us of a very interesting ar- 
ticle in the American Cinematogra- 
pher Magazine on “Titles and how 
they are made,” by Robert W. Teorey, 
one of our club members. 

A1 Leitch of the social committee 
conducted a short discussion on the 
possibilities of the club having a pic- 
nic on a Sunday in the near future. 
It was suggested July would be ap- 
propriate and it was decided to have 
an open discussion regarding such a 
picnic at the next meeting. 

Mr. Cadarette, chairman of the by- 
laws committee, reported progress of 
the committee in the drawing of by- 
laws, and we were promised by next 
meeting they would be ready. 


We wei'e fortunate in having 
a unique demonstration of making 
our own sound records by M. S. Sel- 
vage of the Radiotone Equipment 
Company. The microphone was passed 
around to several members and ex- 
pressions on how they enjoyed the 
club were recorded. The reproduction 
was perfect. Next a film by one of 
the club members and secretary was 
projected and remarks made. The 
film then was reprojected and the 
recording played back. 

M. R. ARMSTRONG, Secretary. 

T 

How the Teoreys Shot 
‘The Golf Widow’ Cast 

T he four-page May bulletin of the 
Los Angeles 8mm Club, which is 
edited by the club’s secretary, M. R. 
Ai'mstrong, assisted by E. J. Brouil- 
lette, Jr., contains a few lines from 
Bessie May Teorey descriptive of the 
execution of the scrapbook idea for 
introducing a cast. The writer is the 
wife of Sergt. Teorey, whose talent 
for inventing gadgets for use by 
amateurs was uncovered at length in 
the two pi’eceding issues of this mag- 
azine. 

The Teoreys recently produced 
“The Golf Widow,” which was shown 
at a recent meeting of the club. Mrs. 
Teorey is as enthusiastic and as tal- 
ented an amateur as is her husband, 
who in his capacity as sergeant of 
marines now is somewhere in the 
Pacific near Honolulu. But let Mrs. 
Teorey tell her own story: 

The Low Down 

“For sometime I had wanted to in- 
troduce a film story with a scrapbook 
idea, the pages turning to introduce 
the cast, so when we were ready to 
shoot our quickie, ‘The Golf Widow,’ 
I bought an ordinary scrapbook that 
had a dark green burlap cover, hav- 
ing in mind using white letters on it 
for a contrast and black lettering on 
the white filler pages. 

“Mr. Teorey did all of the necessary 
hand printing in two days. The re- 
sults he obtained were far beyond 
my expectations, so of course I was 
more enthusiastic than ever. He 
fastened fine black threads to the up- 
per corners of the pages, tying a 
white button on the end of the 
threads and laying them out in oi’der 
beyond camera range. We had ob- 
tained a remnant of drape damask 
which I crushed around the book. 

“This gave the picture depth and 
made for excellent highlighting. As I 
turned the pages slowly, he read the 
titles through one and a half times. 

“Many things were learned during 
the filming of this story; one is — 
keep the action of players smooth and 
unhurried in all scenes!” 


i 


I June, 1937 

New Eastman Sound Projector 
Demonstrated at Convention 


O NE OF THE surprises of the Spring- 
convention of the Society of 
Motion Picture Engineers was the 
demonstration of the new 16mm 
Sound Kodascope Special by E. C. 
Fi’itts and O. Sandvik of the Kodak 
Research Laboratories. Designed ap- 
parently as a companion to the Cine 
Kodak Special, the new projector is 
a de luxe silent or sound projector of 
marked simplicity of operation. 

The machine is housed in a silver- 
finished case of modernistic design. 
For operation, the forward section of 
this opens and the feed and take-up 
spindles unfold into place; the former 
directly above the mechanism, the 
latter below and at right angles to 
the aperture. The sound amplifier and 
loudspeakers form a separate unit, 
drawing power fi-om a separate plug. 
The latter also powers the sound pre- 
amplifier in the projector unit. 

In use, the film is threaded roughly 
through the mechanism, and a small 
lever is depressed which automati- 
cally forms the correct loops. The 


Party, George Blaisdell, editor of the 
American Cinematographer, wrote 
Mr. Little: “I assure you of my be- 
lief that in your work you are doing 
something really worthwhile in a 
large way.” 

Selection of films for exhibition at 
the Ninth Party will be left to a 
responsible jury, as in the past. All 
program announcements will be under 
the personal direction of Mr. Little. 
There will be no prizes and no awards 
of any kind. Film Study will furnish 
a leader for each film selected for 
showing, to read “Selected for Exhi- 
bition at Duncan Little’s Ninth An- 
nual Movie Party, under the auspices 
of Film Study of Columbia Univer- 
sity, April , 1928.” 

All amateurs are cordially invited 
to submit films. There are no fees or 
dues. Further details may be had by 
writing Mr. Duncan Little, 33 West 
Sixty-Seventh street. New York, or 
to Film Study, Columbia University 
Extension, New York. 

T 

INTERNATIONAL AMATEUR 
MOVIE SHOW 

Wednesday, April , 1938 

Film Study, a division of Columbia 
University Extension, announces with 
great pleasure its first International 


aperture is curved to minimize buck- 
ling, and the f:1.6 lens compensates 
for the necessarily curved field. The 
entire film-moving mechanism works 
in an oil bath to minimize wear and 
to assure silence. The sound-repro- 
ducing drum is damped by a suitable 
flywheel, and is elastically connected 
to the film movement through a fluid 
drive. 

The movement is non-reversible, 
and provides two speeds: 16 frames 
per second, for silent projection, and 
24 frames for sound. The driving 
motor and the projecting lamp are 
controlled through the same switch so 
that the lamp cannot endanger the 
film when not running. A 750 watt 
lamp was used in the demonstration, 
but it was stated that other sizes 
would be available. 

To rewind film, the upper reel 
spindle is turned parallel to the lower 
one, and the rewinding effected by 
a separate motor. Either 400-foot or 
1600-foot reels are accommodated. 


Amateur Movie show, to be given at 
the University Wednesday evening, 
April , 1938, in McMillin Aca- 

demic Theater. 

The program will be under the per- 
sonal supei’vision of Mr. Duncan 
MacD. Little, member of the Amateur 
Cinematographers, of England, the 
Society of Amateur Cinematogra- 
phers of Hollywood, and the Metro- 
politan Motion Picture Club, of New 
York. 

Mr. Little is himself an amateur 
motion picture photographer of dis- 
tinction. His film, “The Making of 
Canadian Homespun,” has won honor- 
able mention in England, in Canada, 
and in the United States. Two other 
films by Mr. Little were cited for hon- 
orable mention by the American So- 
ciety of Cinematographers — “The 
Circus Is In Town” and “The St. 
Maurice River Canoe Race.” 

At this first International Amateur 
Movie Show films of outstanding 
merit and unusual interest will be 
screened. They will be selected from 
the prize winners in England, Scot- 
land, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Aus- 
tralia, Holland, France, and the 
United States and Canada. 

No prizes will be given, but Film 
Study will award a Certificate of 


• American Cinematographer 261 

Merit to each film selected for screen- 
ing and a leader to read “Selected for 
Exhibition at the First International 
Amateur Movie Show, Columbia Uni- 
versity, April , 1938.” 

There are no fees or dues for entry. 
Amateurs the world around are 
cordially invited to submit films 
through their local or national groups. 
Further details may be had by writ- 
ing to Duncan MacD. Little, 33 West 
Sixty-Seventh Street, New York, 
U.S.A., or to Film Study, University 
Extension, Columbia University, New 
York. 

o 

EMBASSY IN 16MM SOUND 
Embassy Talking Picture Produc- 
tions, with offices in the Basso Build- 
ing, Detroit, recently has equipped a 
studio for the reproduction of direct 
on 16mm sound pictures. The com- 
pany is prepared to shoot sound and 
pictures in its studio or on location. 
It also is equipped to record sound 
either single or double system and for 
the dubbing of sound, voice and ef- 
fects to silent 16mm film. 

Industrial, advertising, promotion 
and personal sound motion pictures 
will be made to conform to client’s 
order. 

▼ 

TWO KODACHROMES LOWER 
Eastman Kodak Company an- 
nounces a reduction in the price of 
Kodachrome film for miniature cam- 
eras. Kodachrome No. K135 and No. 
K135A, for photoflood lighting, both 
eighteen exposures, for Kodak Retina 
and similar 35mm. miniature cameras, 
is reduced from S3. 50 to S2.50, in- 
cluding processing. 

Kodachrome Film No. K828 and 
K828A for photoflood lighting, both 
eight exposures, for Kodak Bantam 
Special, is reduced from $1*75 to Si. 35, 
including processing. 

▼ 

CASTLE FILMS GROWS 
To meet the demand of expanding 
business, Castle Films, Inc., is mov- 
ing to new offices in the R. C. A. 
Building, Rockefeller Center, which 
has been its New York address for 
the past four years. Its new projec- 
tion room, one of the largest in the 
business film field, will be at the dis- 
posal of organizations which lack 
such facilities. 

▼ 

CHILEAN EXHIBITION NOTES 
According to figures just obtained 
from the Censorship Board, and sub- 
mitted to the bureau by Assistant 
Trade Commissioner Minedee Mc- 
Lean, at Santiago, during the thirteen 
months from January, 1936, to Febru- 
ary, 1937, that board reviewed a total 
of 533 features, 77.3 percent of which 
were imported from the United States, 
and a total of 703 shorts, etc. 


COLUMBIA SPONSORS THE LITTLES' PLANS 

Continued from Page 251 


262 American Cinematographer • June, 1937 


16mm SOUND DISPLACING 

35mm IN BUSINESS WAY 

Abridged from a Paper Presented at the Spring 
Convention of the Society of Motion Picture 
Engineers, Held In Hollywood, May 2U, 1937 

By A. SHAPIRO 

Ampro Corporation 


T he 16MM. SOUND picture is to- 
day definitely recognized as an 
important factor in industrial 
publicity and advertising. The schools 
have accepted it as a valuable con- 
tribution for aiding in educational 
processes. There is a growing use of 
16mm. sound as an entertainment 
medium. 

Present-day l6mm. sound is marked- 
ly better than what was available 
two years ago. The prints have a 
wider range of frequency response. 
Equipment will reproduce this wider 
range with negligible distortion, and 
with volume ample for even large 
auditoriums. The screen illumination 
has been advanced proportionately. 

For commercial and industrial pur- 
poses 16mm. sound has almost entire- 
ly displaced 35mm. The pictures and 
sound are recorded in the usual man- 
ner on 35mm. film and then optically 
reduced to 16mm. film, making it pos- 
sible to show the picture easily, at 
any time or place. One large auto- 
mobile manufacturer is said to have 
over 500 16mm. sound projectors 

constantly in the field, w'hile a single 
operator, showing a 16mm. sound 
film for the Chicago Surface Lines, 
showed it to nearly 100,000 persons 
during 1936. 

It is in the educational field that 
the most interesting developments in 
the 16mm. sound field have taken 
place. The 16mm. silent film had al- 
ready gained an important place in 
this field, and there were large li- 
braries of educational 16mm. silent 
pictures, covering almost every subject 
taught in our schools and high schools. 
In addition, courses for teachers are 
being given in visual education, in- 
cluding both the operation of the pro- 
jector and the methods of correlat- 
ing the picture with other instruc- 
tion. 

Education First 

Only a small fraction of the sub- 
jects taught in our schools have been 
reinforced with the talking picture. 
Here seems a field where the peda- 
gogue and the film producer can unite 
very effectively. Subject presentation 
is definitely a pedagogical problem, 
while direction and production tech- 
nique can best be handled by the pres- 
ent staffs of the producers. 

In the past it has not been under- 
stood sufficiently that the primary 


principle of the educational picture 
must be to educate, and past educa- 
tional films have had much more en- 
tertainment than educational value. 
The necessary art of the film producer 
must be secondary to the primary 
educational intent. 

In the entertainment field, though 
16mm. sound is of adequate quality 
for the smaller theatres, there has 
not been as much achieved in this 
direction as might be expected. In 
England and many other European 
countries there are a number of small 
theatres which operate regularly with 
16mm. equipment. 

Gaumont-British ^urnish its current 
productions on both 35mm. and 16mm. 
film, and the small theatre using 
16mm. equipment can show the same 
pictures as the larger theatre using 
35mm., but with a saving in costs. 
In some cases this saving has a direct 
bearing as to whether or not the 
theatre can operate at a profit. 

The principal reason for the non- 
use of 16mm. equipment in theatres 
in this country is the fact that Amer- 
ican producers as a whole are op- 
posed to issuing their pictures on 
16mm. The entertainment 16mm. li- 
brary here is restricted largely to 
independent pictures and those made 
by a few major producers as long as 
five or six years ago. 

Since the latter were produced by 
what is now inferior recording equip- 
ment the reduction prints often show 
very poor sound quality. 

Government Using 16mm 

There are, however, a number of 
operators, usually road men, using 
16mm. sound for paid entertainment. 
Adding to their demand for more and 
better films is the increasing use of 
16mm. equipment by departments of 
tlie United States Government, includ- 
ing CCC camps, the Army, Navy, etc. 

Here it appears that Hollywood pro- 
ducers have an opportunity to find 
additional outlets for their produc- 
tions. To meet the objection that 
such programs would interfere with 
revenue, it is suggested that these 
16mm. prints be released perhaps 
ninety days after their initial 35mm. 
release, so that their regular 35mm. 
theatrical income would not be jeop- 
ardized by and the income from 16mm. 
use would be added revenue. 


ardized and the income from 16mm. 
sound film is finding increasing use 
as a medium of propaganda. In the 
political campaigns of 1936 in Sweden 
both of the two foremost parties made 
extensive use of 16mm. sound film 
propaganda. Both expressed them- 
selves as highly satisfied with the 
interest aroused by 16mm. sound-film 
presentation, though only one was sat- 
isfied with the results of the election. 

With regard to the home field it 
appears that the home 16mm. owner 
is not ready to purchase 16mm. sound 
equipment in any quantities. One 
reason for this is probably that so 
far there is no 16mm. sound camera 
available which can give adequate re- 
sults and yet be simple enough for 
amateur use. 

The amateur cinematographer would 
very much like to make his own sound 
pictures, but there is no practical 
means of his doing so, while libraries 
of 16mm. entertainment, films are, as 
has been said, very limited. The pos- 
sibilities of this field are definitely 
tied to the development of a suitable 
amateur camera and more extensive 
libraries of entertainment film. 

T 

UNIVERSAL CA.MERA IN 
WESTERN OFFICE 

H arry C. LEAVITT, formerly 
head of the Leavitt Picture Com- 
pany with its place of business in 
Wilshire Boulevard, has been appoint- 
ed western representative of the Uni- 
versal Camei’a Corporation, with of- 
fices at 6058 Sunset Boulevard. The 
Universal manufactures and distrib- 
utes the Univex 8mm camera and 
projector. 

Service Station No. 1 was opened 
in Hollywood May 17. The sales of- 
fice at the number indicated will be 
wholesale only. The western allot- 
ment of equipment was in March set 
for the year 1937, but in two months 
it was exhausted. That particular 
incident was chiefly responsible for 
the sudden visit to Los Angeles on 
the part of Vice President J. J. 
Shapiro and Sales Manager Frank G. 
Klock. The two executives were in- 
terested in learning just what had 
happened to precipitate the outgo. 
They learned and a new allotment war 
provided. 

The home offices of the Universal 
Camera Corporation are in Manhat- 
tan, where at 32 West Twenty-third 
street they were established late in 
1933. During the company’s operation 
millions of still cameras have been 
sold at prices of 39 cents to $1, $1.50 
and $2.59. 

A company executive is quoted as 
remarking Universal plans to market 
a quarter million of the $9.95 movie 
cameras and $14.95 projectors during 
1937. 


June, 1937 

COMPOSITION NOT 
SO TOUGH AS IS 
OFTEN CLAIMED 

Comprehension of Underlying Principles 
Is Not Restricted to Those Miraculously 
Endowed— Fundamentals Are Quite Simple, 
'Just Making Pictures Easy to Look At' 


C OMPOSITION, as it concerns 
amateur filming, is beyond doubt 
the most maligned aspect of 
moviemaking. Not that even a major- 
ity of the really serious cinefilmers 
make bad compositions, but all of 
them save those few who have 
learned better from past experience in 
still photography, painting or sketch- 
ing seem consciously or sub-conscious- 
ly afraid of the term. 

The blame for this rightfully 
should be laid at the door of those 
overearnest artists, photographic 
and otherwise, who in their zeal to 
analyze and tabulate the how, why 
and wherefore of achieving good 
composition have managed to screen 
the essential simplicity of the mat- 
ter with a maze of words and mathe- 
matics that would bewilder an Ein- 
stein. 

Just Pleases the Eye 

Composition is fundamentally 
simple. Webster defines it as “The 
practice of so combining the parts of 
a work of art as to produce a har- 
monious whole.” Personally, I think 
that Edward Steichen’s definition is 
even better for the camera-minded 
artist. Said Steichen: 

“Composition is simply making 
pictures that are easy to look at.” 
Really, that’s all there is to it. If 
your pictures aren’t easy to look at, 
all the attention in the world paid to 
high-sounding phrases and intricate 
geometry can’t make them good com- 
positions. If they are easy to look at 
you can evolve all the fine theories 
you like about the geometry of the 
composition — but the composition will 
still be good primarily because it is 
pleasing to the eye. 

The surprising thing about compo- 
sition is that we simply can’t help 
making compositions, good or bad. If 
I take a blank sheet of paper and 
make the tiniest dot on it with pen, 
pencil or anything else, the result 
will be composition. If I take a box 
brownie and snap it through the win- 
dow I’m making a composition. If I 


happen to use a finer still camera or 
a movie camera. I’m still making com- 
position every time I expose a frame 
of film. 

Composition Inevitable 

Since composition is such an inevi- 
table part of photogi-aphy, we might 
just as well make our compositions 
good. Fortunately it’s no hai’der to 
do so; in fact, often it is easier. 

I like to think of composition as a 
matter of leading the eye to what- 
ever I want it to see and then holding 
it there. Every scene has some point 
of principal interest: that should be 
the most important part of the com- 
position. Everything else in the scene 
should serve either to lead the view- 
er’s eye to that point or, once it is 
there, to keep it from straying. 

A series of tests made several 
years ago by Daniel B. Clark, A.S.C., 
proved that in the maiority of cases 
the eye of a person looking at a mov- 
ing picture screen bee’ins to see the 
picture at the lower left-hand corner 
of the screen, and travels diagonally 
upward toward the upper right-hand 
coi’ner. unless something in the pic- 
ture diyerts that trayel. 

Guideposts in the Picture 

It is not always practical, of 
course, to arrange things so your 
most important object is in such a 
position. But you can yery easily 
place guideposts along the way that 
will direct the audience’s eyes to 
whatever other point you desire. 

None of these little guides was 
either large or obvious. Looking at 
the picture, one was not conscious of 
them, or of how they led the eye; but 
they did the work. Only a small 
branch here, a splotch of sunlight 
thei'e, and a spot of shadow some- 
where else — far too small to be no- 
ticed consciously, nevertheless they 
carried your attention all around the 
picture in a fraction of a moment, 
and brought it to what the photog- 
rapher wanted you to see. 

On the other hand, let any of these 


• American Cinematographer 263 

little signals be too evident, either 
in size or contrast, and it will stop 
the eye just as effectively. 

One often hears the term “balance” 
in discussions of composition. Don’t, 
for heaven’s sake, make the mistake 
of thinking it means that both sides 
of the picture should be symmetrical. 
That is, of course, possible, but the 
result is stiff and formal, like a for- 
mal oration. And in most home movie 
filming we want to maintain an air 
of informality. 

Maintain Balance 

Balance simply means that if you 
have some strongly noticeable feature 
on one side of your picture, there 
should be something on the other side 
to counterbalance it. If, for instance, 
you have some large object on the 
left of your picture, you ought to 
have something fairly noticeable on 
the other side to keep the picture 
from being lopsided. It may be some- 
thing large, or it may be merely a 
conti’ast of light and shade. It may 
be a large mass on one side, offset by 
form or line on the other. 

The same applies to the relation of 
the upper and lower parts of the pic- 
ture as well. That is one reason why, 
in filming landscapes, it is so much 
more effective if you can have some 
sort of a “frame” across the top in- 
stead of plain blank sky. This “frame” 
can be almost anything — a sprig of 
branches, a tree limb, an arch, or 
whatever is convenient. Several pro- 
fessional cinematographers of my 
acquaintance always carry a short 
tree branch with them whenever they 
go on location — simply for framing 
purposes. 

For this same reason, when you 
are making scenic longshots you will 
find it every bit as important to 
“frame” your longshot with an ef- 
fective for^i'ound as to choose an 
interesting background. A well 
chosen foreground frames your real 
view and concentrates attention on 
it, rather than letting the eye wander 
aimlessly off the edges of the screen 
or hunt for something definite to 
look at. 

This Matter of Tone 

In an extreme longshot like this 
you will encounter a definite expo- 
sure problem. If you expose correctly 
for the foreground, the distance — the 
part of the scene you’re really inter- 
ested in getting — is likely to be over- 
exposed. If you expose correctly for 
the distance your framing foreground 
is likely to be a little underexposed or 
even semi-silhouetted. This will give 
you some idea of the importance of 
the tone of an object or area in com- 
position. In the first case, attention 
is almost invariably concentrated on 
the foreground due to its light tone 


264 American Cinematographer • June, 1937 


and to the fact that the overexposed 
distance is vague and meaningless. 
In the latter instance, the darker 
tone of the foreground frame serves 
to keep the eye from wandering, 
while the contrasted, relatively lighter 
tone of the distance rivets the atten- 
tion where it should be. 

Horizons and Such 

Whether you are looking at a land- 
scape scene before you photograph it 
or on the screen, you will notice that 
the horizon line divides the picture 
into two parts. According to the way 
you set your camera in relation to 
the scene you can place this dividing 
line anywhere you wish. The safest 
rule to follow is never to place this 
division right at the middle of the 
picture. Placed centrally it too ob- 
viously cuts the picture in halves and 
gives a stiff, monotonous effect. Gen- 
erally speaking, the most pleasing 
composition in landscapes is had if 
the horizon is about two thirds of the 
way up from the bottom; at any 
rate, well up into the top half of the 
frame. 

Another very similar and very 
large “Don’t” is, never let any object 
in your picture cut the picture into 
two exact halves vertically. A tree 
which, placed a bit to one side or the 
other of the up-and-down central 
division may be very effective, posi- 
tively will kill your composition if 
you let it appear in the exact center. 
The eye simply can’t get past that 
tree ! 

Alphabetical Composition 

If you read what the photographic 
and artistic experts write so pro- 
fusely about composition you will 
undoubtedly have been dazed by argu- 
ments over “S-curves,” diagonal, tri- 
angular, and other alphabetical and 
geometrical complications. For prac- 
tical purposes, there is no need to 
worry about them; they are simply 
terms that try to analyze arrange- 
ments of lines that lead the eye, or 
placements of principal objects, in 
ways that make a pleasing picture. 
And if you forget all these complex- 
ities and remember only to make pic- 
tures that are pleasing because of 
light and shade, line and form, rather 
than for color contrasts you can’t 
reproduce in black-and-white, your 
compositions will be good — and easily 
attained. 

Whatever you do, don’t try to in- 
clude too much in your picture. All 
too frequently the unwary will try to 
combine two or even three inherently 
good compositions in a single shot, 
with the result he gets only one 
badly mixed composition. Befoi’e you 
expose any scene, try asking yourself 
if there is anything that can be elim- 



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inated from your picture. If thei'e is, 
do it. If there isn’t, you’ve probably 
got a good, pleasing composition. 

Finally, don’t forget that moving 
the camera a few feet to one side or 
the other, or a bit up or down, will 
give you an entirely new viewpoint 
and make a new composition for 
your picture. Often such a move will 
make a pleasing picture out of an 
indifferent view. 

W. S. 

T 

IT WAS LABOR OF LOVE 
Cinema Club Member and School 
Principal Doing Worthy Work 

A t the home of Dr. Freebairn 
of the Los Angeles Cinema Club 
during the past month this reporter 
was shown a series of 16mm subjects 
that had been photographed in the 
Canfield Avenue School. The doctor 
was assisted by Mrs. Freebairn and 
Miss G. Elizabeth Johnston, principal 
of the school. 

With film purchased by the three 
named, with scant equipment and 
without lights, pictures were taken in 
all of the fifteen rooms recording the 
more notable of the school’s recrea- 
tional-educational acthities. Particu- 
lar attention was paid to those phases 
of school work in which the children 
think they are playing a game but in 
which the teachers only too well know 
they are being taught fundamental 
things in an educational way. 

As an example, in one room the 
pupils were experimenting with mag- 
nets of various sizes. In another, with 
crayons and large sheets of paper and 
clay the children were creating in pan- 
tomime and background “The Story of 
the Nile.” In clay a pyramid had been 
built. Near it was a representation 
of the Sphinx. 

In another room the children, with 
home-made costumes, were staging a 
theatre project. It is all very inter- 
esting, to the adult as well as to the 
children. For in each instance the chil- 
dren who were photographed after- 
ward were given opportunity to see 
themselves on the screen. 

“The plan of showing the children 
in the midst of their school activities 
has resulted in a very definite suc- 
cess,” said the doctor. “The social 
stimulus value is incalculable. There 
is nothing new in the principle that 
play properly gnided has the greatest 
possible educational force. 

“It gets the children away from any 
handicapping inferiority complex when 
they see themselves in the pictures 
and have an opportunity to observe 
what is accomplished by others more 
fortunately endowed. It inspires 
them to match their fellows. It gives 
the children a chance and, what is of 
large importance, it raises the teach- 
er’s standard of teaching. 


June, 1937 • American Cinematographer 265 


I 




, 

I 


i 


V 

i : 


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ADVANCED CINEAMATEURS 

HAIL DUPONT'S NEW 16 mm 


T he announcement by the 

DuPont Film Manufacturing Cor- 
poration that its sales plan for 
the New Type 300 DuPont Superior 
16mm Panchromatic would provide 
for inclusion of processing charge and 
positive print cost in the purchase 
price of the film aroused real inter- 
est among amateur cinematographers. 
Especially concerned were the more 
advanced of the clan, who for them- 
selves count completely lost that day 
in which is registered no progression 
toward the status of the qualified 
cameraman. 

Among these more advanced fol- 
lowers of the camera are many men 
of means and some leisure. These 
who within reason reckon not the 
cost openly welcome the innovation. 
Behind them come the legion of ex- 
perienced amateurs of moderate 
means who foresee occasions when 
they will be glad to have more than 
one print and to preserve the 
negative. 

The company announces that for 
the present film will be returned to 
DuPont for processing in special fine 
grain developers which keep the 
graininess down to a satisfactory 
level. 

Among the qualities enumerated 
for the Type 300 Panchromatic it is 
stated that in speed, latitude, grain 
and color balance it is identical with 
the 35mm Superior Panchromatic in 
use in Hollywood. 

Advantages of Speed 

The new stock differs from ordi- 
nary 16mm film in that it has a pro- 
tective layer between the active emul- 
sion and the celluloid which prevents 
halation and, more important, insu- 
lates the active layer from any harm- 
ful action from the celluloid solvents 
which can cause loss of sensitivity 
or degradation of the latent image. 

Citing the advantages flowing from 
the extreme speed of the new film it 
is pointed out it is possible to work 
under adverse lighting conditions, 
both interior and exterior; it facili- 
tates slow motion photography, and 
allows fully timed negatives to be 
obtained behind the dark red filters if 
extreme corrections are desired. 

The color balance is so chosen as 
to give optimum results with and 
without make-up. Subjects shot under 
incandescent light without make-up 
will be found to have a pleasing, clear 
flesh texture without sacrifice in 


modeling or excessive lightening of 
lips. 

In the matter of latitude the con- 
trast of the new film is set at a level 
which gives the greatest range. Sub- 
ject material with deep shadows and 
bright highlights will be reproduced 
without the shadow detail blocked or 
the highlights chalked up through 
loss of detail. 

The quality and cleanliness of the 
prints will reflect the high operating 
standards which are so vital in the 
manufacturing of motion picture 
products. 

What New Film Brings 

As to the advantage of negative 
and print method over the reversal 
process the following are cited: 

(a) Provides opportunity in print- 
ing to correct for minor errors in 
original exposui’e of negative. 


(b) Greater exposure latitude. The 
negative-positive system will handle 
a much greater departure from cor- 
rect exposure than the reversal sys- 
tem. With the latter, gross overexpo- 
sure leaves insufficient silver halide 
to produce a satisfactory positive. 
In the negative and print method the 
positive has its full quota of emul- 
sion, and all that is necessary is to 
provide sufficient printing light to 
get through the negative. 

The negative serves as a permanent 
record and is not subjected to the 
hazards of projection. 

As many copies can be made as 
desired, all of which will be of finest 
quality. 

Filter factors for the more com- 
monly used Wratten filters are as 
follows: Aero 1, 1.7; Aero 2, 2.7; 21, 
3.5; 23 A, 5.0; 25 A, 6.5; 29F, 14.0. 


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266 American Cinematographer • June, 1937 


OSWALD, TEN YEARS OLD, 

GOING BIG IN 8 AND I6mm 


O SWALD the Rabbit, who re- 
cently reached his tenth birth- 
day as a professional screen charac- 
ter, is now in 8 and 16mm film being 
distributed to 2,500 toy dealers and 
1,000 department stores in the United 
States and to licensees in Canada, 
Africa, South America and England, 
although he made his appearance in 
the secondary film field only a few 
months ago. 

Approximately 225 persons have a 
hand in making each of these sub- 
jects, says T. H. Emmett of Holly- 
wood Film Enterprises, licensees for 
their distribution. The “Oswald” ani- 
mated cartoons are produced by 
Walter Lantz, at Universal studios, 
where 225 persons find permanent 
employment. Lantz is one of the vet- 
erans in this highly specialized field. 
“Oswald” is his pet. 

On the studio cartoon department 
payroll are story writers, gagmen, 
artists, animators, in-betweeners and 
inker-inners. 

A story is written for every “Os- 
wald” subject, just as if it were a 
production to be made with fiesh-and- 
blood characters. Once the plot or 
idea is decided upon it is turned over 
to a regular staff of scenario writers, 
who lay it out in continuity form. 

Artists and Writers Too 

The gagmen are really comedy 
writers with artistic ability — or comic 
artists with writing ability, depend- 
ing on the way you look at it. Not 
only must they be able to think up a 
funny situation, but also they must 
be able to draw it in a humorous 
manner. The animated cartoon gag- 
man hasn’t any counterpart in the 
motion picture business. Most of 
these men come from the newspaper 
comic-strip field. 

When the script is finished it is 
turned over to other artists who pre- 
pare the key illustrations, showing 
costumes, etc., and the key situations 
of every scene. These drawings then 
go to the animators, who make what 
might be called the pivotal drawings 
for the pictui’e. 

That may need more explanation. 
In the modern motion picture, pre- 
pared in 35mm size, there are six- 
teen drawings to the foot of film. 
Suppose the scene is Oswald walking 
across a room, taking two steps to the 
foot of film. The animators draw the 
start, the middle and the finish of 
each step — really these are key draw- 
ings which show the important physi- 
cal aspects of each motion. 

The “in-betweeners” then take 


these drawings and make the in-be- 
tween sketches necessary to complete 
the action. 

Animators and “in-betweeners” 
make their drawings in pencil. When 
the series is complete for any one 
scene the drawings are turned over to 
the “inker-inners,” who trace, in ink 
and paint, the sketches on trans- 
parent celluloid. 

Real Painters Engaged 

Meanwhile a battery of artists is 
working to pi*epare the backgrounds 
— the sets, you might call them — 
against which the action is played. 

In many of the miniature cartoon 
reels now on the market the old-time 
penline drawings are used in the 
background. Lantz uses full wash 
drawings for his backgrounds, and 


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the artists who prepare these back- 
grounds are accomplished painters. 
Many of them have won prizes and 
worldwide recognition for their work 
in crayon, water-color, pastel and 
other mediums. 

The transparent celluloid sheets 
carrying the line drawings are now 
laid over the backgrounds, and sent 
to the camera room, where they are 
photographed in sequence by means 
of a stop motion camera. Sixteen sep- 
arate drawings are used to complete 
every foot of 35mm film. 

When the negative is completed in 
35mm size it is sent to Hollywood 
Film Entei’prises, where reduction 
prints are made, in the 16mm and 
8mm sizes. The 16mm carries two and 
a half times as many pictures to the 
foot as does the 35mm, and the 8mm 
takes double the number used in the 
16mm. An average of 100 men and 
girls are employed in the process of 
making the reduction print negative 
and printing, developing, cutting, 
packing and shipping the finished 
positives. 

The Hollywood Film Enterprises 
laboratory is one of the oldest and 
most up-to-date in Hollywood. It has 
been in the business of making re- 
duction prints since 1925. 

Universal recently has released a 
short making clear to the layman 
just how Oswald reaches the screen. 

T 

FILMO TOPICS IS OUT 

Bell and Howell’s Filmo Topics, 
Spring issue for 1937, is off the 
press. It a a highly creditable publi- 
cation, to its editor, E. A. Reeve, and 
his associate, R. H. Unsedl, and its 
publishers as well. There are 16 7% 
by 1014 inch pages. Wide use is made 
of photographs, as becomes a camera 
publication, offset lithography being 
employed in reproduction. Succeeding 
issues will appear in alternate 
months. 

Filmo Topics will be sent, upon re- 
quest to Bell and Howell, 1801 Larch- 
mont avenue, Chicago, without charge 
to users of motion picture equipment. 
The company asks that such requests 
be accompanied by a statement of 
the kind of camera and projector 
owned, and if it be of Bell and Howell 
make serial numbers be stated. 

T 

ENGLER TO ENGLAND 

Robert J. Engler, ERPI recording 
engineer, was tendered a farewell 
luncheon by his associates at the 
Hollywood Athletic Club prior to 
leaving for New York, where he will 
sail for London. Mr. Engler will as- 
sume the duties of recording engineer 
in England, working with William 
Bach, executive of Western Electric 
Company, Ltd., of England. 



June, l‘J37 


American Cinematographer 267 


HERE'S THE ANSWER 


SIMPLIFYING FILTER FACTORS 

Is it possible to translate filter 
factor numbers directly into terms 
of increased diaphragm opening? 

R. J. DAUGHERTY, 

Hamilton, Ohio. 


The way the stops on most 16mm. 
and 8mm. camera lenses are marked, 
a factor of two or 2x, which means 
doubling the exposure, recjuires open- 
ing up the lens by one marked stop. 
For instance, if your normal un- 
filtered exposure is f:16, your expos- 
ure with a 2x filter would be f:ll. 
With a filter factor of 4, your ex- 
posure would be f:8 — with a factor of 
6, f:6.3, and so on. Factors like IV 2 
2 V 2 , 3, 5, and so on would be propor- 
tionately between stop-markings. 

▼ 

ORTHO AND POSITIVE FILTERS 

If I wish to use ortho or posi- 
tive film, what factors should I 
allow when using the Aero 1 
filter? The K-1 filter? The K-2 
filter? 

R. J. DAUGHERTY, 

Hamilton, Ohio. 


You seem to be making the some- 
what common mistake of supposing 
these two films are identical except 
for speed. They are not, although 
some of the cheapest types of rever- 
sal film, actually positive, have been 
misleadingly exploited as “ortho 
type.” Although the two types are 
slightly similar, when viewed in com- 
parison with a panchromatic or 
superpan type, they are actually 
noticeably different as to color-sensi- 
tivity. 

Color-sensitivity, as well as overall 
speed, determines the factor of an> 
filter on any type of film. Suppose we 
have a positive-type film which is 
sensitive to ultra-violet, blue and, to 
a limited extent, to green, but blind 
to light of other colors. Perhaps 
39/40 of its sensitivity is in the ultra- 
violet, violet and blue, with 1/40 in 
the green. Now suppose we use a 
strong yellow filter which cuts out all 
the ultra-violet, violet and blue light. 
This eliminates 39/40 of the light 
capable of making an exposure on that 
film, and leaves only 1/40 of the 
usable light to produce our picture. 
On that film, that filter has a factor of 
40, for w'e must increase the exposure 
40 times. 

On the other hand, suppose we use 
the same yellow filter on a true ortho- 


chromatic film, which is sensitive to 
not only ultra-violet, violet, blue and 
green light, but also to yellow. Say 
4/5 of that film’s sensitivity is in the 
ultra-violet, violet and blue, wdth the 
remaining 1/5 in the green and yel- 
low. In this case, we would still have 
1/5 of the usable light left after 
passing through the filter that cut out 
the ultra-violet, violet and blue. So 
our filter would be a 5x filter, and w'e 
would increase our exposure 5 times, 
or two-and-a-half stops. Used on a 
film sensitive to orange, this filter 
would have a still smaller factor, 
while on pan or superpan the factor 
might decrease till it made only a 
fraction of a stop’s difference in the 
exposure. 

Generally speaking, it is not advis- 
able to use any sort of a filter on 
positive-type film, though a filter like 
the Kodachrome haze filter, which 
cuts out only the ultra-violet, might 
on rare occasions be used. With 
average ortho film, Eastman’s book- 
let “Wratten Light Filters” gives the 


10Red„«dg 

Geo. W. Colburn Laboratory 

Special Motion Picture Printing 

1197 MERCHANDISE MART 
CHICAGO 


LINES WANTED! 

A going concern would like to take on 
several meritorious lines in 16mm field. 
Send details as well as photographs. 
Territory in N. Y., New England and 
Eastern Coast. 

MOVIE SUPPLY CO. 

1209 Broadway New York City 


Super X 35mm Film 

2 Vi Cents a foot 
postage paid anywhere in the 
United States 
MORGAN CAMERA SHOP 
6305 Sunset Blvd. — Hollywood, Calif. 



• 

filters you mention factors of 3 and 
6, respectively. Using them on plena- 
chrome film, I have had excellent re- 
sults by simply doubling the filters’ 
factors for superpan: making their 
factors for plenachrome 2%, 3 and 4. 

T 

SPLICES FOR WIPE-OFFS 

Some time ago in an issue of 
your magazine a diagonal splicer 
was illustrated. Making a splice 
on negative film produced a wipe 
on the positive. Is this splicer on 
the market. And who sells it? 

H. S. WILSON, 

Staten Island, N. Y. 


The article you refer to is prob- 
ably the one in the December, 1934, 
issue in which Charles G. Clarke, 
A.S.C., described how he had made 
a splicer of this type, for ^ase on 
his own 16mm. films. It was built 
up from an ordinary small metal print 
trimmer. Near the cutting edge four 
pilot pins were located to hold the 
film in place while cutting, and a 
metal guide bar dropped down over 
the film to hold it flat and also to 
serve as a guide in scraping the film. 
The tw'o films to be joined were both 
cut in the same w'ay. The splice itself 
was made on a patcher located on the 
flat surface of the trimming board. It 
consisted of a long metal plate with 
eight pilot pins to hold the perfora- 
tions of the two film-strips in proper 
register. Another bar was hinged to 
drop over it to apply pressure after 
the cement had been applied. 

More recently, Joe Meyer of the 
Beverly Hills Home Movies made a 
splicer of this general type, which he 
planned to market, though I believe 
as yet the device has not reached the 
market commercially. 

According to reports reaching us 
from several who have used splicers 
of this type for making wipes, the 
idea works quite well for making 
splices on negative film, but does not 
always withstand the strains of pro- 
jection when the splice-wu'pe is used 
on positive or reversal film. After 
all, if such a splice is to hold, the two 
pieces of film must be aligned very 
accurately, and the splice made ex- 
pertly. 

For producing wipes on positive or 
reversal film, the use of “Fotofade” 
and its special masking cellulose tape 
is probably simpler, though the wipe 
produced is not exactly the same. In- 
cidentally, when making wipes with 
Fotofade, it is essential to use the 
special type of cellulose tape supplied 
for this purpose by the manufacturer; 
ordinary “scotch tape” is not always 
satisfactory. 


I 



268 American Cinematographer 


• June, 1937 


Clifford Nelson Shows 
Color Films to Chiefs 
of Eastman Kodak Co. 

Within five yeai’s all photography 
may be done in colors, according to 
Clifford A. Nelson, director of the 
Visual Recreation Commission of 
San Francisco, who was in Rochester, 
N.Y., recently exhibiting color mov- 
ing pictures for Eastman Kodak 
executives. 

Vitality and beauty as found in 
nature can only be photographed 
well in natural colors, and therein 
lies the secret of the future success 
of color photography, according to 
Mr. Nelson. 

The group pictures exhibited were 
composed of “Trail Song,” a photo- 
graphic history of a boys’ packtrain 
trip into the Califoimia High Sierras, 
which was described in the April 
issue of this magazine; “Aztec Me- 
tropolis,” a photographic story of old 
Aztec ruins in Mexico, and “Recrea- 
tion in San Francisco,” depicting the 
various phases of recreational ac- 
tivity in a large city. 

The first text book on natural 
color photogi’aphy to be published, 
“Natural Color Film,” has been 
written by Mr. Nelson, at the re- 
quest of a publishing house, and after 
being reviewed by Eastman Kodak 
officials in Rochester it was pro- 
nounced as being a valuable addition 
to the science of color photography. 

While in Rochester, Mr . Nelson 
was entertained by Frank W. Love- 
joy, president of the Eastman Kodak 
Company; Dr. C. E. K. Mees, A.S.C., 
and by M. Herbert Eisenhart, presi- 
dent of Bausch and Lomb Company. 

▼ 

Leica Reproduces Color 

The May issue of Leica Photog- 
raphy is in gala dress, with a brilliant 
four-color front and back cover. This 


CRAIG 

SPLICER and REWINDS 



CRAIG JUNIOR COMBINATION $8.50 

Junior Splicer with two geared rewinds 
all mounted on 21" board. 
CRAIG MOVIE SUPPLY CO. 

1053 So. Olive St. Los Angeles. Cal. 


is one of the finest examples to date 
of what can be done in the line of 
reproduction with the Kodachrome 
color process when it is employed 
with a photographic instrument of 
precision and advanced design. 

Made in South America by Ivan 
Dmitri, these color photographs have 
an unusual naturalness and a sense 
of life about them. For the reproduc- 
tion process the necessary color sep- 
aration plates were produced directly 
from the transparency without inter- 
mediate photographic steps. 


PATHEGRAMS BUSY 
Castle Films, Inc., editors and na- 
tional distributors of the Pathegrams 
copyrighted 16mm and 8mm motion 
pictures of the Hindenburg explosion 
and England’s coronation, report sales 
of these films exceeding ten million 
feet. 

Sound and silent versions of the 
coronation pictures were on sale at 
the end of May. Production of profes- 
sional pictures of important events 
of international interest in sub-stand- 
ard sizes is a departure. 


CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 


Rates : Seven cents a word. Minimum charge, 
one dollar per insertion. 


FOR SALE— MISCELLANEOUS 


WALL SINGLE SYSTEM SOUND CAMERA 
with direct drive motor, new type move- 
ment, variable area high fidelity galvanom- 
eter, microphone, amplifier, lenses, triijod 
and accessories. Complete, ready for opera- 
tion. Rebuilt silenced and standard Bell & 
How’ell 170 degree Cameras — Hi-speed gear 
boxes. Bell & Howell Hi-speed shuttles- 
Two late model Bell & Howell splicers : 
rebuilt Duplex sound and picture printer : 
pair used Simplex portable sound projec- 
tors with 2000 ft. magazines. Precision, 
Debrie and Bell & Howell pan and tilt tri- 
ix>ds. Bell & Howell 1000 ft., 400 ft. maga- 
zines. Motors, sunshades, finders, lenses 
and all accessories. Write, wire or cable. 
MOTION PICTURE CAMERA, INC., 723 
SEVENTH AVE., NEW YORK. N. Y. 
CINECAMERA. 


BELL & HOWELL 5-WAY SOUND PRINTER. 
Generators, Panel Control Boards, Duplex 
Printers, Sound Moviolas, Developing Ma- 
chines, Blimps, Dolly, B & H splicers, Mit- 
chell and B & H Silent Cameras, Motors, 
High Speed Gear Boxes, Light Testers, 
Projection and Lighting i^uipment. Guar- 
anteed optically and mechanically perfect. 
Send for 1937 Bargain Catalogue. Holly- 
wood Camera Exchange. 1600 Cahuenga 
Blvd., Hollywood, California. Cable Ho- 
camex. 


WE BUY, SELL AND RENT PROFESSION- 
AL AND 16mm EQUIPMENT NEW AND 
USED. WE ARE DISTRIBUTORS FOR 
ALL LEADING MANUFACTURERS. 
RUBY CAMERA EXCHANGE, 729 Sev- 
enth Ave., New York City. Established 
since 1910. 


BELL AND HOWELL 170° CAMERAS— high 
speed shuttles — high speed gear boxes — 
400 and 1000 foot Bell & Howell maga- 
zines — Bell & Howell tripods — motors. 
AKELEY and DEBRIE CAMERAS. Akeley 
motors. High speed motors. Sunshades, 
lenses and finders. 

Write or Wire 

CAMERA EQUIPMENT, INC. 

1600 Broadway New York City 

Tel.: BRyant 9-4146 Cable: Cinequip 


BELL-HOWELL CAMERA SILENCED, adapt- 
ed for color, variable area, single system 
sound. Complete outfit, like new, ready 
to shoot. §2750.00 Hollywood Camera Ex- 
change. 1600 Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood, 
California. Cable Hocamex. 


STUDIO RECORDING CAMERA, with vari- 
able area galvanometer ; — noise reduction 
shutter - noise i-eduction amplifier : — con- 
trol panel ; — spare vibrator ; — complete, 

ready for oiieration. $1850.00. SOUND- 
FILM ENTERPRISES, INC., 723 Seventh 
Ave., New York. N. Y. 


DEBRIE CAMERA, Parvo, 8 magazines, tri- 
pod and cases, $1200.00 cost will sell for 
$200.00 almost new, bargains in 16-35mm 
cameras. We Buy Anything. Block Cam- 
era — 154 E. 47th St. New York. 


ART MOVIES, 16mm .and 8mm. List Free. 
Box 16, Station W. Brooklyn, N. Y. 


MITCHELL CAMERA, guaranteed condition. 
Studio equipped. Write for description. 
$2750. & $3500. 

BELL & HOWELL CAMERA, fully equipped, 
original B & H Movement, $1150. 

AKELEY CAMERA, 3 Lenses; 2"-3"-12", 4 
Magazines, Akeley Tripod, Cases, etc. $800. 

We buy and sell used equipment of every 
description. Write us your needs. 

CAMERA SUPPLY CO. 

1515 North Cahuenga Blvd., 
Hollywood, Calif. 


NEW FULLY EQUIPPED FEARLESS 65MM 
wide film camera. Ideal for color and ex- 
perimental work. Extra 35mm high speed 
movement. Price complete $2,000.00. Fear- 
less Camera Co., Hollywood, Calif. 


NEW 16mm VICTOR CAMERA with turret, 
five speeds, visual focusing, reverse action, 
factory guarantee. A $147. 50 value for 
only $105.00. Bargain list free. Fromader 
Service, Davenport, Iowa. 


SILENT BELL-HOWELL CAMERA equipped 
with Fearless Quick Focus Shift and silent 
Fearless high speed movement : 4 fast len- 
ses : 4-1000 ft. magazines, matte box, 2 
motors, friction head tripod, etc. This 
silent camera does not require blimp. Ideal 
for color. Price fully equipped $1,500.00 
Fearless Camera Co., Hollywood, Calif. 


FOR SALE: DEBRIE CAMERA, Model E. 
Electric Drive, A-1 condition, also Univer- 
sal Camera, best offers. Want : Bell & 

Howell or Akeley. Box 1457, Tampa, Fla. 


WANTED 


WE WANT TO BUY 
All types of Cameras 

We pay the highest cash prices for Mitchell, 
B & H, Akeley, DeBrie, Eymo and other 
makes of cameras and camera accessories. 
We also want trijwds, motors, magazines, cut- 
ting room and laboratory equipment. Tell us 
what you have ! Get our price offer ! ! 

CAMERA EQUIPMENT, INC. 

1600 Broadway New York City 


WE PAY CASH FOR YOUR USED CAMERA. 
LABORATORY AND STUDIO EQUIPMENT. 
Write, wire or cable 

MOTION PICTURE CAMERA SUPPLY, INC. 
723 Seventh Avenue, New York City 
Cable Address ; Cinecamera 


WANTED — U.sed Eastman or Filmo Movie 
Outfit. S. Lake Bass, 1961 Government St., 
Baton Rouge, La. 


WANTED: DEBRIE PARVO L. Please state 
condition and lu'ice to ROLAB Photo-Sci- 
ence Laboratories, Sandy Hook, Conn. 


WANTED. We pay cash for everything pho- 
tographic. Send full information and low- 
est cash prices. Hollywood Camera Ex- 
change, 1600 Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood, 
Calif. 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 
1937 AMATEUR COMPETITION 
FOR 8mm AND 16mm SUBJECTS 



$500 


$1000 IN PRIZES ^ 

CASH $500 EQUIPMENT 


Grand Prize $200 

Photography . , oO 

Color 50 

Scenario 50 

Home Movie 50 

Educational 50 

Scenic 50 


Total 


$500 


Details of 
No Entrance 


Equipment to be Announced Later 

Fee. Original Films Only— No Dupes 
No Reduction from 35mm 


T Hi: RILE S 


The contest is world wide and open only to j^enuine 
8mm or Ifimm amateurs or amateur clubs. 

The contest ends at midnight November 30, 1937. 
Entries, mailed or expressed, later than that time will 
not be eligible. 

Pictures submitted will be judged by photography, en- 
tertainment and, or story value, direction, acting, cut- 
ting and composition. 

The decision of the judges, among whom there will 
be prominent cameramen, will be final. Announcement 
of the awards will be made as soon after the close of 
the contest as possible and checks and prizes sent to 
the winners. 

Pictures may be submitted either by individual ama- 
teur movie makers or they may be submitted by ama- 


A M ERICAN ( INEM ATOGR APH ER 
1782 No. Orange Drive 
Hollywood, California 

Please send me one of your official entry blanks. 
1 intend to enter a ( Ifimm 8mm) picture in your 
1937 contest. I understand my entry must be in 
your office not later than November 30, 1937. 

Name 

Street 

Address 


teur movie clubs. Each entrant must have his entry 
or entries accompanied by a .sworn statement, the blank 
for which will be forwarded to him to fill in. 

Contestants may enter as many subjects as the> 
desire. One entry blank will cover all subjects. 

The -American Cinematographer reserves the right 
not to declare a prize for any classification if in the 
opinion of the judges there is not a picture submitted 
sufficiently good to be classed as a prize-winner. 

The -American Cinematographer, subject to the spe- 
cial notice printed below, also retains the right to make 
duplicates of such prize-winning pictures as it may in- 
dicate, for free distribution to clubs and amateur or- 
ganizations throughout the world. 

If you intend to enter the contest please ,'^end coupon 
on this page for official entry blank. 


.Special — While there has not been sufficient time 
in which to work out details it has been agreed 
in principle that the winner of the American 
Cinematographer contest unless he choose other- 
wise shall be a contender in the competition lo 
represent the United States in the International 
Movie Show supervised by Duncan MacD. Little 
and sponsored by Columbia University Extension 
and if successful shall in due course be a contes- 
tant for an award in the great final. 

One fundamental condition would be imposed 
upon the winner: That the film be placed in the 
custody of the International Committee and not 
be screened except by the committee until such 
time as the subject is returned to the owner fol- 
lowing determination of its final status. 


The CAMERAMAN 
The PRODUCER 
The DIRECTOR 
The STAR 

Whe never They Say ''Camera” 


They Think of 

MITCHELL 



Mitchell Camera Corporation 

665 N. ROBERTSON BOULEVARD 
WEST HOLLYWOOD, CALIF. 

Cable Address “MITCAMCO” Phone OXford 1051 

BELL & HOWELL CO., LTD., London, England 
CLAUD C. CARTER, Sydney, Australia 
D. NAGASE & CO., LTD., Osaka, Japan 


AGENCIES 

MOTION PICTURE CAMERA SUPPLY, INC., New York City 
BOMBAY RADIO CO., LTD., Bombay, India 
H. NASSIBIAN, Cairo, Egypt